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Doubled Pawns
Endgame Weakness

Point Count Chess, NO.62A to NO.62B, p93-94
Cohn v. Rubinstein, 1909

Black forces White's g-Pawn to complete an exchange of Minor Pieces, on f3, to give White Doubled Pawns, on the f-file. In that same move, White's h2-Pawn becomes an Isolated Pawn, which Black's King takes advantage of, eventually leading to White's resignation.

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the two positions featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.93 No.62A, after 23...Rxc4
  2. PCC, p.94 No.62B, after 34.Kh1
  3. Result of the Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness.
  4. Summary of the Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness.
  5. PGN

Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.93 No.62A, after 23...Rxc4

After: 1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 c5 3.c4 dxc4 4.dxc5 Qxd1%2B 5.Kxd1 Nc6 6.e3 Bg4 7.Bxc4 e6 8.a3 Bxc5 9.b4 Bd6 10.Bb2 Nf6 11.Nd2 Ke7 12.Ke2 Be5 13.Bxe5 Nxe5 14.Rhc1 Rac8 15.Bb3 Rhd8 16.Nc4 Nxc4 17.Rxc4 Rxc4 18.Bxc4 Ne4 19.Ke1 Bxf3 20.gxf3 Nd6 21.Be2 Rc8 22.Kd2 Nc4+ 23.Bxc4 Rxc4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62A - Page 93
After: 23...Rxc4

1. How White gains Doubled Pawns, on the f-file.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62A - Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 1.d4 to 19.Ke1
Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 1.d4 to 19.Ke1x
After 1.d4 to 19.Ke1, both sides have exchanged just over half the Pieces, as well as the c- & d-Pawns, off the board.

This Simplified position sees each side retaining:
  • 1x Rook,
  • 1x Knight,
  • 1x light-Bishop.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62A - Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 19...Bxf3 20.gxf3
Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 19...Bxf3 20.gxf3
After 19...Bxf3 20.gxf3, White is forced to gain Doubled Pawns, on the f-file. In addition, White's h-Pawn becomes Isolated.

Black makes a relatively even exchange of material, trading his light-Bishop, to remove White's Nf3 (19...Bg4xf3).

White likely wouldn't be able cope with the material deficit, so has no choice but to complete the trade, with his g-Pawn (20.g2xf3), which created both Doubled Pawns, on the f-file, and an Isolated h-Pawn.

2. Black Simplifies, trading off the last Minor Pieces

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62A - Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 19...Nd6 to 23...Rxc3
Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 20...Nd6 to 23...Rxc3
After 20...Nd6 to 23...Rxc3, Black's sole focus turns to removing the remainder of Minor Pieces, further Simplifying the position, so Black's King can take advantage of White's weak Pawn structure (Doubled f-Pawns), during the Endgame phase.

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Position #2, My Analysis
PCC, p.94 No.62B, after 34.Kh1

After: 24.Rc1 Rxc1 25.Kxc1 Kf6 26.Kd2 Kg5 27.Ke2 Kh4 28.Kf1 Kh3 29.Kg1 e5 30.Kh1 b5 31.Kg1 f5 32.Kh1 g5 33.Kg1 h5 34.Kh1

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62B - Page 94
After: 34.Kh1

3. Black Simplifies into the Endgame phase, trading off the last of the adverse Rooks

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62B - Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 24.Rc1 Rxc1 25.Kxc1
Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 24.Rc1 Rxc1 25.Kxc1
After 24.Rc1 Rxc1 25.Kxc1, both remaining Rooks are traded off the board, Simplifying to leave just the Kings and Pawns on the board, for the Endgame battle.

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The Result of the Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 25...Kf6 to 29.Kg1
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 25...Kf6 to 29.Kg1
After 25...Kf6 to 29.Kg1, Black wastes no time getting his King down to White's Isolated h-Pawn, making the moves in quick succession (25...Ke7-f6 » 26...Kf6-g5 » 27...Kg5-h4 » 28...Kh4-h3).

Naturally, White is forced to bring across his King, to defend his Isolated h-Pawn.

Note: White's King takes a slight detour, to defend his e- & f-Pawns, as he makes his way across to the Isolated h-Pawn (26.Kc1-d2 » 27.Kd2-e2 » 28.Ke2-f1 » 29.Kf1-g1).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 29...e5 to 33...h5
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 29...e5 to 33...h5
After 29...e5 to 33...h5, only Black's a-Pawn is left at home, as Black brings all his other Pawns, down to their front line (29...e6-e5 » 30...b7-b5 » 31...f7-f5 » 32...g7-g5 » 33...h7-h5).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 34...g4
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 34...g4
After 34...g4, Black attacks the head of White's Doubled f-Pawns, with his g-Pawn (34...g5-g4).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 35.e4 fxe4 36.fxe4
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 35.e4 fxe4 36.fxe4
After 35.e4 fxe4 36.fxe4, White's Doubled Pawn weakness is dissolved, but into another weakness: Backward Pawn.

White's e-Pawn leads an attack, on Black's f5-Pawn (35.e2-e4), which sees Black's f-Pawn exchange onto e4 (35...f5xe4).

And that leads to White's Doubled Pawns being dissolved, as White's f3-Pawn completes the trade, on e4 (36.f3xe4). However, the exchange has resulted in White's f2-Pawn becoming Backward (unable to advance, because of Black's g4-Pawn).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 62 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness, After 36...h4 to 38...hxg3
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Endgame Weakness,
After 36...h4 to 38...hxg3
After 36...h4 to 38...hxg3, Black completes an exchange of h-Pawns onto g3, whereupon White resigns.

Black began by pushing his h-Pawn forward (36...h5-h4), to support the advancing Double Attack, from Black's g-Pawn (37...g4-g3), which resulted in the exchange of Pawns (38.h2xg3 h4xg3).

White resigns, as he won't be able to prevent Black's King (which has the Better King Position) from freeing one of his blockaded Pawns, which he can then guide to Promotion.

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Summary of the Doubled Pawns, Endgame Weakness...

  1. The Opening & Middlegame phases results in each side exchanging the following units off the board: Queens, 1x Rook, 1x Knight, 1x dark-Bishop, plus the c- & d-Pawns.

  2. Black forces White to create Doubled Pawns, on the f-file, AND turn the h-Pawn into an Isolated Pawn, after Black's light-Bishop is sacrificed, to capture White's Nf3. White has no choice, but to complete the trade with his g2-Pawn capturing onto f3, to sit in front of White's f2-Pawn.

  3. Black focuses on Simplifying the position, to trade into a winning Endgame position. First, Black trades the last remaining Minor Pieces (Black's Knight, for White's light-Bishop). Then, the last set of adverse Rooks are exchanged off the board. This leaves just the Kings and Pawns to battle it out in the Endgame phase.

  4. Black's King heads straight for White's Isolated h2-Pawn, forcing White's King to come across to defend it.

  5. Black's a-Pawn is left at home, as he brings his remaining Pawns to their front line, prior to the assault on White's weak Kingside Pawns.

  6. Black's g-Pawn attacks the head of White's Doubled Pawns, which leads to White counterattacking Black's f-Pawn, with his e-Pawn, and the subsequent exchange of f-Pawns, which leaves White's original f-Pawn in a Backward position, on f2.

  7. Black's h- & g-Pawns combine to force an exchange of Pawns, on g3. First, Black's h-Pawn is advanced, to support a Double Attack by Black's g-Pawn, against White's Backward f2-Pawn and Isolated h2-Pawn. White captures with the h-Pawn, which leaves Black's h-Pawn to complete the trade, on g3, renewing the attack on White's Backward f2-Pawn.

  8. White resigns, as he won't be able to prevent Black's Better Positioned King, freeing one of his blockaded Pawns, and guiding it down to Promotion.

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PGN

[Event "St.Petersburg"]
[Site "St.Petersburg"]
[Date "1909.??.??"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "?"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Erich Cohn"]
[Black "Akiba Rubinstein"]
[ECO "D21"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "76"]

1.d4 d5 2.Nf3 c5 3.c4 dxc4 4.dxc5 Qxd1+ 5.Kxd1 Nc6 6.e3 Bg4 7.Bxc4 e6 8.a3 Bxc5 9.b4 Bd6 10.Bb2 Nf6 11.Nd2 Ke7 12.Ke2 Be5 13.Bxe5 Nxe5 14.Rhc1 Rac8 15.Bb3 Rhd8 16.Nc4 Nxc4 17.Rxc4 Rxc4 18.Bxc4 Ne4 19.Ke1 Bxf3 20.gxf3 Nd6 21.Be2 Rc8 22.Kd2 Nc4+ 23.Bxc4 Rxc4 {PCC p.93 No.62A} 24.Rc1 Rxc1 25.Kxc1 Kf6 26.Kd2 Kg5 27.Ke2 Kh4 28.Kf1 Kh3 29.Kg1 e5 30.Kh1 b5 31.Kg1 f5 32.Kh1 g5 33.Kg1 h5 34.Kh1 {PCC p.94 No.62B} g4 35.e4 fxe4 36.fxe4 h4 37.Kg1 g3 38.hxg3 hxg3 0-1

End.

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