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Advanced Salient
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4)

Point Count Chess, NO.24, p41
Stumpers v. Bouwmeester, 1955

Speaking about the Salient and Reverse Salient, in general, H&M-S give the advantage to whichever structure is the more advanced. They say: "Analysis will show, we believe, that the more advanced formation, whichever type it is, usually has the edge."

This example shows how Black's Reverse Salient can be used to triumph over White's Advanced Salient.

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.41, No.24, after 10...c5
  2. Result of the Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4).
  3. Summary of the Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4).
  4. PGN

Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4)
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.41, No.24, after 10...c5

After: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Nf3 O-O 6.Be2 e5 7.O-O c6 8.Qd3 Nbd7 9.Rd1 Re8 10.d5 c5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - Page 41
After: 10...c5

1. White builds a 3 Pawn Phalanx, prior to gaining the
Advanced Salient

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 1.d4 to 4.e4
The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 1.d4 to 4.e4
After 1.d4 to 4.e4, White builds a 3 Pawn Phalanx (1.d2-d4 » 2.c2-c4 » 4.e2-e4), with each Pawn supported by one Piece:
  • 3.Nb1-c3,
    supports e4-Pawn;
  • Qd1 (without moving),
    supports d4-Pawn;
  • Bf1 (without moving),
    supports c4-Pawn.
Black focuses his moves on building a House for his King, which is something Yasser Seirawan recommends.

2. Continued Development that leads to White's Advanced Salient vs. Black's Reverse Salient

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 4...d6 to 7.O-O
The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 4...d6 to 7.O-O
After 4...d6 to 7.O-O, Black has formed a Chain down to e5 (4...d7-d6 » 6...e7-e5), and Castled Kingside (5...O-O).

White catches up on his preparation to Castle Kingside (5.Ng1-f3 » 6.Bf1-e2), and then Castles (7.O-O).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 7...c6
The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 7...c6
After 7...c6, Black delays the creation of his Reverse Salient, choosing instead just to advance the c-Pawn one pace forward (7...c7-c6)
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 8.Qd3 Nbd7 9.Rd1
The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 8.Qd3 Nbd7 9.Rd1
After 8.Qd3 Nbd7 9.Rd1, White develops his Queen (8.Qd1-d3), prior to forming a Battery on the d-file, with the King Rook (9.Rf1-d1).

White's decision to move the Queen to d3, instead of d2, could be for multiple reasons:
  1. It supports all three Pawns that will take part in the Advanced Salient structure;
  2. It doesn't get in the way of a potential Pin on Black's Nf6 (e.g. Bc1-g5);
  3. And, of course, it enables White's King Rook to slot behind the Queen, into the Battery.

In-between those two White moves, Black develops his Queen Knight (8...Nb8-d7), which will provide additional support for pushing the c-Pawn into the Reverse Salient (...c6-c5).

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 9...Re8 10.d5 c5
The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 9...Re8 10.d5 c5
After 9...Re8 10.d5 c5, White gains the Advanced Salient; Black settles for the Reverse Salient (in a non-Advanced position).

Black's King Rook going to the e-file (9...Rf8-e8) is the prompt for White to push his d-Pawn (10.d4-d5) again, to create his Advanced Salient formation (c4,d5,e4).

Black immediately pushes his c-Pawn (10...c6-c5) into the Reverse Salient formation (c5,d6,e5).

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The Result of the Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4)...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 10.d5 c5
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 10.d5 c5
After 10.d5 c5, White gains the Advanced Salient; Black settles for the Reverse Salient (in a non-Advanced position).

H&M-S give their verdict of the position: "White has more Space; Black consequently has a more restricted development."

However, due to a "peculiarity of this formation," Black's Reverse Salient apparently has the better prospects, despite being the less advanced structure ...

Remember, H&M-S have said that, in general, "Analysis will show, we believe, that the more advanced formation, whichever type it is, usually has the edge."

So, here we have an exception to that generalization, which proves to give the edge to Black's Reverse Salient ...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - Comparing Strike-points, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 10...c5
Comparing Strike-points,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 10...c5
And this is, in part, why:
  • White's two flank Pawns (b2 & f2), will strike at the 'van' of Black's Reverse Salient.

  • Black's two flank Pawns (b7 & f7), will strike at the 'base' of White's Advanced Salient.
Either Salient of Reverse Salient formations effectively contain two Chains within the overall structure. The recommendation for attacking Chains, is to "attack the base;" therefore, Black's two aforementioned flank Pawns will create more serious problems for White, than White's respective Pawns will make during their attack(s) on the 'van' of Black's Reverse Salient.

The remaining analysis, below, shows a "special circumstance," when this attacking advantage enjoyed by Black's Reverse Salient, which H&M-S say gives Black a "slight edge," can triumph over White's advantage for Greater Space.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 11.a3 Rf8 12.b4 Ne8
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 11.a3 Rf8 12.b4 Ne8
After 11.a3 Rf8 12.b4 Ne8, White develops his a- & b-Pawns into a Chain (11.a2-a3 » 12.b2-b4), shaping up to a potential exchange of Pawns on c5 (b4xc5, ...d6xc5).
H&M-S point out White's problem, with the "frontal attack" on the Reverse Salient, saying the exchange will lead to White gaining a Protected Passed Pawn (e4 protecting d5), but at the expense of gifting Black an "eternal square" at d6 ...

Note: Black's last move (12...Nf6-e8) prepares for the d6-square to become free, should the Pawns exchange on c5. If it goes ahead, Black will post his Ne8 to the "eternal" d6-square, whereupon it would be attacking BOTH base Pawns in White's Advanced Salient.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 13.Rb1 b6
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 13.Rb1 b6
After 13.Rb1 b6, White brings his Queen Rook to the b-file (13.Ra1-b1), declining the instant Pawn exchange on c5, to gather support for what he hopes will be a raid on the Queenside.

H&M-S say: "White defers PxP (b4xc5) until he can muster a raiding party on the queen-side."

Unfortunately (for White), White never gets to attack Black on the Queenside, as Black's b-Pawn (13...b6) reinforces his c5-Pawn, then focuses his attack on the Kingside, which leads to the destruction of White's Advanced Salient, which results in White gaining TWO Isolated Pawns.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 14.Rf1 h6 15.Ne1
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 14.Rf1 h6 15.Ne1
After 14.Rf1 h6 15.Ne1, White prepares for a clash of Pawns on the Kingside portion of the two opposing Salient formations, by bringing his King Rook back to the f-file (14.Rd1-f1) and getting the King Knight out of the way of the f2-Pawn (15.Nf3-e1).

In between those two moves, Black develops his h-Pawn (14...h7-h6), probably to prevent White's Bc1 trying something at g5
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 16.g3 f5 17.f4
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 16.g3 f5 17.f4
After 16.g3 f5 17.f4, both sides attack the other's Salient formation, on the Kingside.

White attacks the 'van' of Black's Reverse Salient (16.g2-g3 » 17.f2-f4).

Black has the superior attack, against the 'base' of White's Advanced Salient (16...f7-f5).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 17...exf4 18.gxf4 fxe4 19.Nxe4
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 17...exf4 18.gxf4 fxe4 19.Nxe4
After 17...exf4 18.gxf4 fxe4 19.Nxe4, both Salient formations are destroyed, in the resulting exchange of Pawns, with White coming off worse, being left with TWO Isolated Pawns (f4 & h2).

Black launches the exchange, dissolving his Reverse Salient, to take out White's original f-Pawn (17...e5xf4). As White's g-Pawn completes that trade (18.g3xf4), it leaves White's h2-Pawn Isolated.

Black then launches the exchange that destroys White's Advanced Salient, as he takes out the Kingside 'base' Pawn (18...f5xe4). This instantly leaves White's replacement f4-Pawn Isolated.

To an extent, both sides have Compromised their King-side, but White's King is far more exposed.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 23...Bd4+
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 23...Bd4+
After 23...Bd4+, I just wanted to show how Black capitalizes on the remaining Pawn structure, following the dissolving of his Reverse Salient.

Black's dark-Bishop had for so long, since 3...Bf8-g7, formed part of the King's "House," but shows how it subsequently can be used to build up an attack against White's King.

Following the dismantling of the Pawn Guard surrounding White's King, Black sends his dark-Bishop to the d4-Outpost (23...Bg7-d4+), attacking White's exposed King.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 24 - The Advanced Salient, Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4), After 33...Rxg6
(RESULT) The Advanced Salient,
Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4),
After 33...Rxg6
After 33...Rxg6, White resigns.

Note: Black's c5-Pawn, formerly of the Reverse Salient, is still maintaining Black's dark-Bishop, on the d4-Outpost, as both units contribute to Black's victory.

This completes an example of how a Reverse Salient can triumph over a Salient in a more-advanced position.

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Summary of the Salient v. Reverse Salient (1 of 4)...

  1. White builds a 3 Pawn Phalanx, prior to gaining the Advanced Salient (1.d2-d4 » 2.c2-c4 » 4.e2-e4). White goes on to gain the Advanced Salient; Black settles for the Reverse Salient (10.d4-d5 c6-c5).

  2. Greater Space appears to be one of the main benefits enjoyed by the side with the Advanced Salient v. the opponent's non-Advanced Reverse Salient.

  3. When the Advanced Salient may be vulnerable: It would appear that the Advanced Salient is vulnerable when an opponent is able to use Pawns on the adjacent files, to attack the Base Pawns of the Advanced Salient structure. Black reinforced his Reverse Salient on the Queenside, before using his f-Pawn to take-out the base of White's Advanced Salient (16...f7-f5 » 17...e5xf4).

  4. Once both opposing Salient formations have been destroyed, the remains of Black's Reverse Salient can be used to support an attack on White exposed King. Black did this with the dark-Bishop, removing it from its place in the King's House, to sit on the d4-Outpost (23...Bg7-d4+), supported by Black's c5-Pawn, which had been part of the 'van' (head) of Black's Reverse Salient.

  5. The result of a successful attack on an Advanced Salient may be to leave your opponent with Isolated Pawns, and a Compromised King-side. Black's successful destruction of White's Advanced Salient left White with both f4- & h2-Pawns Isolated; White's King was exposed to an attack by Black's dark-Bishop (23...Bg7-d4+), and was also vulnerable on the Open g-file, from a Black Rook (33...Rfxg6), which is when White resigned.

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PGN

[Event "Eindhoven"]
[Site ""]
[Date "1955"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Stumpers, Louis F."]
[Black "Bouwmeester, Hans"]
[Result "0-1"]
[NIC "KI 15.4"]
[ECO "E94"]
[PlyCount "66"]

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. e4 d6 5. Nf3 O-O 6. Be2 e5 7. O-O c6 8. Qd3 Nbd7 9. Rd1 Re8 10. d5 c5 {PCC p.41 No.24} 11. a3 Rf8 12. b4 Ne8 13. Rb1 b6 14. Rf1 h6 15. Ne1 Qe7 16. g3 f5 17. f4 exf4 18. gxf4 fxe4 19. Nxe4 Ndf6 20. Ng3 Nh5 21. Bxh5 gxh5 22. f5 h4 23. Nh5 Bd4 24. Kg2 Qf7 25. Qe2 Bxf5 26. Rb3 Be4 27. Nf3 Qg6 28. Kh1 Ng7 29. Nxg7 Kxg7 30. Qg2 Rf6 31. bxc5 dxc5 32. a4 Raf8 33. Qxg6 Rxg6 0-1

End.

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