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Passed Pawn
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns

Point Count Chess, NO.173, p247-248
Example Sequence

In this example, White's b3-Pawn is the Actual Passed Pawn.

Black's 3-Pawn Majority, represents the Potential Passed Pawn -- it has the potential, providing the Majority can overcome White's 2-Pawn Minority, to leave Black with an Actual Passed Pawn.

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.247, No. 173, before 1.g4
  2. Result of the Actual and Potential Passed Pawns.
  3. Summary of the Actual and Potential Passed Pawns.
  4. PGN
Additional analysis includes the:

Actual and Potential Passed Pawns
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.247, No. 173, before 1.g4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - Page 247
Before: 1.g4
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, Before 1.g4
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
Before 1.g4
Before 1.g4, H&M-S point out that, in this situation, if White is to succeed with his Pawn Minority, it's imperative that White use his Pawns to break-up Black's 3-Pawn Phalanx, and it must be done before attempting to advance his b3-Pawn.

Due to timing (the number of moves it'll take), White's King is unable to get around Black's King and Pawns, to help break-down Black's 3-Pawn Majority.

So, White leads with the Minority Attack ...
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 1.g4 f4+
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 1.g4 f4+
After 1.g4 f4+, Black appears to have neutralized the threat, advancing his f-Pawn beyond the attack from White's g-Pawn, and countering with an attack that forces White's King to move away from his Kingside Pawns.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 2.Kd3
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 2.Kd3
After 2.Kd3, White's careful relocation of his King (2.Ke3-d3) actually forces Black into the break-up of his 3-Pawn Majority.

Note: Black only has two choices:
  1. move the King;
  2. move the Backward e-Pawn.
If Black moves his King, it lets White's King go to e3, before picking apart all three Black Pawns, one by one (Ke3xe5 » Ke5-f5 » Kf5xg5 » Kg5xf4) ...

White may lose his b-Pawn, in the process, but will have gained two new Actual Passed Pawns, with a free run at Promotion.

Black has no option, but to move his e-Pawn.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 2...e4+ 3.fxe4+ Kc5
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 2...e4+ 3.fxe4+ Kc5
After 2...e4+ 3.fxe4+ Kc5, Black's e-Pawn advance (2...e5-e4+) results in its capture (3.f3xe4+) and the creation of two new Actual Passed Pawns (e4 & f4). However, they're both destined to be removed from the board.

Having been put in check, Black's King is forced to flee -- so he heads in the direction of White's b3-Pawn (3...Kd5-c5).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 4.Kc3 f3
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 4.Kc3 f3
After 4.Kc3 f3, it would appear that White has blundered by moving his King over toward his b3-Pawn (4.Kd3-c3), as it's taken him away from those Kingside Pawns -- specifically Black's Actual Passed Pawn, which makes a sudden dash for Promotion (4...f4-f3).

However, White has correctly applied the Rule of the Square, to determine that his King can easily make it across to capture Black's f-Pawn (3=x), before it can gain Promotion ...
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 5.Kd3 f2 6.Ke2
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 5.Kd3 f2 6.Ke2
After 5.Kd3 f2 6.Ke2, White's King has caught up to Black's f-Pawn, in good time; it now has no chance of gaining a meaningful Promotion -- that is to say, even if it makes the step onto f1, White's King can capture it, immediately.

So, it would appear that White's earlier King move (4.Kd3-c3) may well have been bait, to tempt Black's Pawn into making that fateful dash toward Promotion.

Well, it worked, and now Black's f-Pawn is about to be permanently removed from the board.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 6...Kd4 7.Kxf2 Kxe4
The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 6...Kd4 7.Kxf2 Kxe4
After 6...Kd4 7.Kxf2 Kxe4, both newly-created Actual Passed Pawns are captured.

White's b-Pawn -- his original Actual Passed Pawn -- can now be moved closer to its Promotion square.

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The Result of the Actual and Potential Passed Pawns...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 173 - The Passed Pawn, Actual and Potential Passed Pawns, After 8.b4 Kd5 9.Kf3
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
Actual and Potential Passed Pawns,
After 8.b4 Kd5 9.Kf3
After 8.b4 Kd5 9.Kf3, Black's King is faced with an impossible task -- alone, he cannot prevent one of White's Pawns from being Promoted, as they're spread too far apart.

If Black's King could go after the Kingside Pawn, White's b-Pawn can race clear for Promotion.

But, the reality is, Black's King cannot go after White's g-Pawn, as White's King can just remain by its side, and Black's King cannot touch it, as it would be violating the rule that says Kings cannot sit on adjacent squares.

However, as soon as Black's King goes after the Queenside Pawn, White's King will be able to capture Black's g-Pawn, freeing his own g-Pawn, which can then be escorted, if required, to gain Promotion.


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Summary of the Actual and Potential Passed Pawns...

  1. White ignores his b-Pawn (the Actual Passed Pawn), to attack and break-down Black's Kingside Pawns, first (1.g3-g4). This enables Black to interlock both f- & g-Pawns and check White's King (1...f5-f4+), which seems, at first, to neutralize White's threat, as White is forced to move his King away from the Kingside Pawns (2.Ke3-d3). But White has the situation under his control.

  2. Two temporary Actual Passed Pawns are created, when White's f-Pawn captures Black's e-Pawn (2...e5-e4+ 3.f3xe4+). Remember, Black couldn't move his King, as it would have resulted White's King removing all three Black Pawns, speeding up Black's demise (of course, this example ignores the option to resign from a hopeless situation, which Black finds himself in).

  3. White correctly applies the Rule of the Square, to entice forward Black's Backward f-Pawn (Black had no other move option). White's King is able to reach Black's f-Pawn, and intercept it before it can gain Promotion (4.Kc3-d3 f3-f2 5.Kd3-e2).

  4. The two temporary Actual Passed Pawns (e4 & f2) are taken-out (6...Kc5-d4 7.Ke2xxf2 Kd4xe4), leaving White's original Actual Passed Pawn (b3), the two blockading g-Pawns, and of course the Kings.

  5. White leaves Black's King with an impossible task. White advances his b-Pawn (8.b3-b4), and brings his King up to support his g-Pawn (9.Kf2-g3). Black's King cannot stop White from Promoting one of his Pawns -- whether it's a straight-forward advance of his b-Pawn, or whether he first has to remove Black's g-Pawn, to escort his own g-Pawn to Promotion.

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Why 1.b3-b4 won't work, for White...

If White leads the sequence with his b-Pawn, then Black's King will have it, while Black's Kingside Pawns will be able to hold of White's two Pawns and King, just long enough for Black's King to return to help turn his one of his Pawns into an Actual Passed Pawn, which his King can then escort down to its Promotion square ...

... For example: Black's e-Pawn becomes an Actual Passed Pawn ...


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PGN

[Event "PCC, p247-248 Diagram NO. 173"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "????.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Horowitz"]
[Black "Mott-Smith"]
[Result "*"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "8/8/8/3kppp1/8/1P2KPP1/8/8 w - - 0 0"]
[PlyCount "17"]

{PCC, p247 Diagram NO.173} 1. g4 f4+ 2. Kd3 e4+ 3. fxe4+ Kc5 4. Kc3 f3 5. Kd3 f2 6. Ke2 Kd4 7. Kxf2 Kxe4 8. b4 Kd5 9. Kf3 *

End.

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