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Superior Development
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece (1 of 2)

Point Count Chess, NO. 129, p183-184
Keres v. Fuderer, 1955

By moving the an already-developed Piece, multiple times in the Opening phase (the development phase of the game), instead of developing new Pieces into good positions, you waste precious development "time" that could otherwise be spent strategically positioning your Pieces, ready for the Middlegame battle.

If you're busy making multiple -- and unnecessary -- moves of the same Piece, while your opponent is diligently developing new / not-yet-developed Pieces to their preferred positions, it is likely you will gift your opponent the advantage of Superior Development.

About the Maxim that says...
"Never move the same piece twice until
you have moved each piece once."
H&M-S explain that this is basically an "ideal", a play for "absolute perfection", and that in reality, this isn't often practical to achieve in a real game situation.

Point Count Chess - No.129, Maxim: Never move the same piece twice until you have moved each piece once
After: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6
For example, look at the position reached after the following opening moves: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 (see image, left).

H&M-S point out that, even though White loses a Tempo (the forced second move of the light-Bishop, to avoid its capture), the effect on the overall Tempo tally is offset by Black having moved a Pawn (3.a7-a6), instead of developing a new Piece.

Had Black developed another Piece, and not felt it necessary to chase White's Bishop away with a Pawn, he would have taken the lead in Piece Development.
So, regarding the maxim, "Never move the same piece twice until you have moved each piece once", it should be taken as a rough 'n' ready guide, and not a rule cast in stone, to be adhered to at all cost.
Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.183, No. 129, after 8.Qd2
  2. PGN

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece (1 of 2)
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.183, No. 129, after 8.Qd2

After: 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4 Qb6 8.Qd2

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Page 182-183
After: 8.Qd2
Just before they discuss this, H&M-S list three reasons for lost Tempos, with regards to Piece Development:
  1. Pawn moves: moving a Pawn fails to develop a Piece, so it's a lost opportunity to increase your Tempo tally;

  2. Multiple moves by the same Piece: moving the same Piece again, fails to develop a new, not-yet-developed Piece (another lost opportunity to increase your Tempo tally);

  3. Exchanges: any Piece that had been developed is taken off the board, during the exchange. This removes that Piece's development from the Tempo tally.
In the example, below, the "TEMPO" tally focuses on Tempos lost by Multiple Moves of the Same Piece. Neither development of Pawns, nor Exchanges, (unless a Piece was moved more than once, in the process), will affect this specific Tempo tally ...

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 1.e4 c5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 1.e4 c5
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 1.e4 c5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
No Pieces Developed
0
BLACK
No Pieces Developed
0

Pawns are developed on both sides; neither's Tempo tally is affected.

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 2.Nf3 d6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 2.Nf3 d6
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 2.Nf3 d6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3
1
BLACK
No Pieces Developed
0

White moves a Piece for the first time, and so adds one Tempo, to his Tempo tally.

Black moves a Pawn, and has not yet moved any Pieces, so his Tempo tally remains at zero.

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 3.d4 cxd4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 3.d4 cxd4
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 3.d4 cxd4
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3
1
BLACK
No Pieces Developed
0

Both sides move a Pawn each. The capture of White's d-Pawn, by Black's c-Pawn, doesn't affect the Tempo tally, which White still leads by a single Tempo.

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 4.Nxd4 Nf6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 4.Nxd4 Nf6
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 4.Nxd4 Nf6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 4.Nxd4
1
BLACK
4...Nf6
1

White moves his King Knight (Same Piece), for a second time (Multiple Times).

This affects the Tempo tally, as follows: as the Knight's second move is added to the Tempo tally (4.Nf3xd4), the Tempo from that Knight's very first move (2.Ng1-f3), is deducted; or, it's "lost".

In that same move, Black developed his first Piece, so is able to draw level, in the Tempo tally, due to White's second move of the Knight.

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 5.Nc3 a6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 5.Nc3 a6
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 5.Nc3 a6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 4.Nxd4; 5.Nc3
2
BLACK
4...Nf6
1

White develops a new Piece (5.Nb1-c3); while Black develops another Pawn (5...a7-a6).

So, once again, White takes a one Tempo lead. However, as White gets the benefit of moving first, at the start of each game, he is effectively back to his natural one Tempo lead; there's no critical lead, at the moment (H&M-S suggest a two unit lead, is significant).

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 6.Bg5 e6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 6.Bg5 e6
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 6.Bg5 e6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 4.Nxd4; 5.Nc3; 6.Bg5
3
BLACK
4...Nf6
1

White develops another Piece; Black develops yet another Pawn.

White now extends his Tempo tally, to take a two unit lead over Black.

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 7.f4 Qb6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 7.f4 Qb6
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 7.f4 Qb6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 4.Nxd4; 5.Nc3; 6.Bg5
3
BLACK
4...Nf6; 7...Qb6
2

White develops a Pawn; Black develops a new Piece, adding another Tempo to his tally, and reducing the deficit to White's development, by one Tempo.

Multiple Moves by the Same Piece, After: 8.Qd2 Qxb2

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 129 - Multiple Moves by the Same Piece - After 8.Qd2 Qxb2
Multiple Moves by the Same Piece
After: 8.Qd2 Qxb2
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 4.Nxd4; 5.Nc3; 6.Bg5; 8.Qd2
4
BLACK
4...Nf6; 7...Qb6; 8...Qxb2
2

Black moves his Queen, for a second time. His original Tempo is lost, as the current Queen's position takes over from it, in the Tempo tally of Developed Pieces.

What this has shown is that, when a Piece is moved for a second time, the previous Tempo gained, when it first moved, is the one that is lost -- it's not so much that the Tempo tally is reduced; more that the Tempo gained by the Piece's first move is transferred to its subsequent move, in the tally.

Basically, on the same move, if your opponent develops a Piece, and you move a Piece that you had already moved once, you would have "lost a Tempo."


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PGN

[Event "Goteborg ct"]
[Site "Goteborg"]
[Date "1955.09.10"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "15"]
[Result "1-0"]
[White "Paul Keres"]
[Black "Andrija Fuderer"]
[ECO "B97"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "35"]

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4 Qb6 8.Qd2 {PCC p.183 No. 129} Qxb2 9.Rb1 Qa3 10.e5 Nfd7 11.f5 Nxe5 12.fxe6 fxe6 13.Be2 Nbc6 14.Nxc6 bxc6 15.Ne4 d5 16.O-O Qa4 17.Bh5+ Kd7 18.Rxf8 1-0

End.

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