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Doubled Pawns
Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2)

Point Count Chess, NO.70, p101
Rubinstein v. Canal, 1929

This example shows how White can thrive with Doubled Pawns on the f-file, and is in complete contrast to No.69, where the same Doubled f-Pawns proved to play a significant role is White's downfall.

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.101 No.70, after 10...Nfd5
  2. Result of Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2).
  3. Summary of Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2).
  4. PGN
Additional analysis includes the:

Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2)
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
p.101 No.70, after 10...Nfd5

After: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Be7 5.Bf4 c6 6.e3 Nbd7 7.h3 O-O 8.Qc2 dxc4 9.Bxc4 Nb6 10.Bb3 Nfd5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - Page 101
After: 10...Nfd5

1. How White's e-Pawn become Doubled, on the f-file.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 1.d4 to 8.Qc2
Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 1.d4 to 8.Qc2
After 1.d4 to 8.Qc2, despite slightly different play to that seen in No.69, once again there's the same two core similarities:
  1. Tension between the Pawns at c4 & d5.

  2. White's e3-Pawn supporting the Bf4*
(* Black will exchange this unit, to force White's e3-Pawn to become Doubled on the f-file).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 8...dxc4 9.Bxc4
Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 8...dxc4 9.Bxc4
After 8...dxc4 9.Bxc4, White gets the two Center Pawn advantages:
  1. 2-v-1
  2. 4th v. 3rd
... and they're both given to White, as Black's d5-Pawn captures White's c4-Pawn (8...d5xc4), breaking the tension and forcing the exchange of Pawns, on c4, with White's light-Bishop completing the trade (9.Bf1xc4).
This is a significant difference to No.69, where White was first to break the tension, to capture Black's d5-Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 9...Nb6 10.Bb3 Nd5
Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 9...Nb6 10.Bb3 Nd5
After 9...Nb6 10.Bb3 Nd5, using both Knights, Black enables an attack on White's Bf4, in the build-up to exchanging a Knight, to force White's e3-Pawn to become Doubled on the f-file.

First, Black's Queen Knight (9...Nd7-b6) defends the d5-square, from White's light-Bishop, which is driven back by the Nb6 (10.Bc4-b3).

And then Black's King Knight is able to move to the d5-Outpost (10...Nf6-d5), to attack White's Bf4.

Black's Nb6 ensures he'll be able to maintain a Knight attack on White's Bf4, in the event White chose to capture the current Nd5, with his Bb3.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 11.O-O Nxf4 12.exf4
Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 11.O-O Nxf4 12.exf4
After 11.O-O Nxf4 12.exf4, White's e3-Pawn is forced to Double Away from the Center, onto the f-file, as it completes the Minor Piece exchange on f4.

Despite his Bf4 coming under attack from Black's Nd5, White chooses to spend his next move Castling Kingside (11.O-O).

Black's Nd5 immediately captures White's Bf4 (11...Nd5xf4), forcing White's e3-Pawn to complete the trade (12.e3xf4), to become Doubled on the f-file.

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The Result of Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2)...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 12.exf4
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 12.exf4
After 12.exf4 , White incurs Doubled Pawns on the f-file.

H&M-S then highlight how: "White subsequently expanded on both wings."

The key expansion moves are noted, below ...
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 16.Ne5
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 16.Ne5
After 16.Ne5, White posts his remaining Knight to the e5-Outpost, supported by the d4-Pawn and the leading Doubled f-Pawn (f4).

The first example of White's Doubled Pawns proving to be helpful.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 18.a3
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 18.a3
After 18.a3, White begins the first of two Queenside Pawn moves, whose objective is to stifle Black's attempt at counterplay.

White's a-Pawn (18.a2-a3) will support the advance of White's b-Pawn, to b4.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 20.h4 and 21.h5 and 22...g6
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 20.h4 » 21.h5 » 22...g6
After 20.h4 » 21.h5 » 22...g6, White advances his h-Pawn toward Black's Kingside Pawn Guard (20.h3-h4 » 21.h4-h5), which succeeds in the first part of its objective: forcing Black's g-Pawn to step forward (22...g7-g6).

The overall objective for White's h-Pawn is to swap it off the board, to Open the h-file, up to Black's Kingside Castled King.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 23.Be4
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 23.Be4
After 23.Bc2, White relocates his light-Bishop (23.Bb3-c2), which will enable White's b-Pawn to move to b4, when the time is deemed right, to work with White's a3-Pawn, in stifling Black's counterplay on the Queenside.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 24.hxg6 hxg6
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 24.hxg6 hxg6
After 24.hxg6 hxg6, White takes matters into its own hands, forcing the exchange of Pawns on g6, to Open the h-file (24.h5xg6 h7xg6).

White's h-Pawn has successfully completed its objective.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 25.g4 and 26.g5
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 25.g4 » 26.g5
After 25.g4 » 26.g5, White's g-Pawn completes its objective, which was to secure White's e5-Outpost, and the occupying Knight.

In successive moves, White's g-Pawn is advanced up the g-file (25.g3-g4 » 26.g4-g5), to blockade Black's g-Pawn, and guard the f6-square:
  • Blockading Black's g-Pawn prevents it potentially removing White's f4-Pawn, which co-supports White's Ne5-Outpost.

  • Guarding the f6-square prevents Black's Backward f7-Pawn from advancing to attack and chase White's Ne5 off its Outpost.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 70 - (RESULT) Doubled Pawns, Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2), After 29.b4
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
Doubling Away from
the Center (2 of 2),
After 29.b4
After 29.b4, White's b-Pawn is finally advanced (29.b2-b4), to help stifle Black's counterplay, on the Queenside:
  • Black's c6-Pawn cannot advance to create space for Black's Pieces to mobilize and coordinate effectively through the Queenside gaps;

  • White's b4-Pawn prevents Black's Queen from moving to either a5 or c5, and frees White's Isolated d4-Pawn from that responsibility, so it can focus on helping to maintain the Knight on its e5-Outpost.

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Summary of Doubling Away from the Center (2 of 2)...

  1. The whereabouts of Black's e-Pawn appears to be the key difference between determining whether White's Doubled f-Pawns will be a fatal weakness, or an asset that can be used for victory.

  2. If Black's e-Pawn remains on e6, because Black chooses to break the tension by capturing White's c4-Pawn (No.70, 8...d5xc4), then it serves to strengthen White's opportunities, when he incurs the Doubled f-Pawns.

  3. If Black's e-Pawn completes the Pawn exchange on d5, because White chooses to break the tension by capturing Black's d5-Pawn (No.69, 5.c4xd5), then it serves to increase the vulnerability of White's Doubled f-Pawns (when incurred). Black's light-Bishop will be able to focus on White's weak light-squares on the Kingside, as White's g-Pawn will leave Holes at f3 & h3, when it's forced to advance (No.69, 10.g2-g3), to provide support for White's leading Doubled f-Pawn (f4).

  4. White's Isolated d4-Pawn appears to be safe enough, whether White's Doubled f-Pawns are deemed to be an asset or a fatal weakness (see Comparison 3, below, for full details).

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Comparison between No.69 (Doubled f-Pawns = White Loses)
& No.70 (Doubled f-Pawns = White Wins)...

Black's e-Pawn is the one key difference, between No.69 and No.70 that turns Doubled f-Pawns from being a fatal weakness, into being an asset that can assist in White's victory.

1. THE KEY DIFFERENCE: the adverse Center Pawn structure.

In No.69 (after 7...Nh5, below-left), we see the position just before Black's Nh5 captures White's Bf4, to force White's e3-Pawn to become Doubled, on the f-file.

White already has a 2-v-1 advantage, while Black has a 4th v. 3rd advantage (Black's d4 v. White's e3), following the completion of the Pawn exchange, on d5, by Black's e-Pawn (5.c4xd5 e5xd5).

Point Count Chess - IE - Comparison 1, Doubled f-Pawns = Fatal -- Diagram 69
(COMPARISON 1)
Doubled f-Pawns = Fatal Weakness,
No.69, After 7...Nh5
Point Count Chess - IE - Comparison 1, Doubled f-Pawns = Beneficial -- Diagram 70
(COMPARISON 1)
Doubled f-Pawns = Asset,
No.70, After 10...Nfd5

In No.70 (after 10...Nfd5, above-right), we see the position just before Black's Nd5 captures White's Bf4, to force White's e3-Pawn to become Doubled, on the f-file.

However, in this case, Black's e-Pawn is still at e6, while White's Center Pawns have both advantages: 2-v-1 and 4th v. 3rd (White's d4 v. Black's e6).

2. How this key difference impacts both sides, once White incurs Doubled Pawns, on the f-file.

In No.69 (after 9.exf4, below-left), White incurs Doubled Pawns, on the f-file.

Because Black's former e-Pawn is now on d5, this benefits Black's light-Bishop, which will be able to focus on White's weak squares on the Kingside: once White's g-Pawn has been forced to step forward, to support White's leading Doubled f-Pawn (f4), it will leave Holes at f3 and h3 (weak squares).

In addition, because Black's former e-Pawn is no longer on e6, Black can advance his f-Pawn, to f6, to stop White's King Knight occupying the e5-Outpost. If Black still had his e-Pawn on e6, Black's f-Pawn couldn't move to f6, without making the e6-Pawn Backward (a Weak Pawn, for White to target!). But that's not a problem, here.

Point Count Chess - IE - Comparison 2, Doubled f-Pawns = Fatal -- Diagram 69
(COMPARISON 2)
Doubled f-Pawns = Fatal Weakness,
No.69, After 9.exf4
Point Count Chess - IE - Comparison 2, Doubled f-Pawns = Beneficial -- Diagram 70
(COMPARISON 2)
Doubled f-Pawns = Asset,
No.70, After 12.exf4

In No.70 (after 12.exf4, above-right), White incurs Doubled Pawns, on the f-file.

Because Black's e6-Pawn cannot advance, Black's light-Bishop becomes a Bad Bishop, which cannot be freed of its weakness (low mobility) until Black can find a way of clearing the light-squares on the Queenside (of course, as we've seen, above White's a- & b-Pawns advance, to prevent Black's counterplay, via ...c6-c5, which would help give Black's light-Bishop its freedom).

In addition, the problem of Black's e6-Pawn impacts on Black's ability to prevent White's King Knight from gaining a positional advantage, when it occupies the e5-Outpost. Black cannot risk making his e6-Pawn Backward, to cannot advance his f7-Pawn (...f7-f6) to deny White's Nf3 access to e5.

Black's e6-Pawn also causes Black's army Cramp, preventing Black's Pieces from expanding through the Center, which further impacts on Black's ability to counter, as White expands and attacks on the Kingside.

3. The security of White's Isolated d4-Pawn

In No.69 (after 9.exf4, below-left), appears to be a little safer, since it would become un-Isolated, if Black were to attack it with his c-Pawn (e.g. 1...c6-c5, then 2.d4xc5 removes the Pawn from its isolation, with 3.b2-b4, to support White's former Isolated d-Pawn).

Point Count Chess - IE - Comparison 3, Doubled f-Pawns = Fatal -- Diagram 69
(COMPARISON 3)
Doubled f-Pawns = Fatal Weakness,
No.69, After 9.exf4
Point Count Chess - IE - Comparison 3, Doubled f-Pawns = Beneficial -- Diagram 70
(COMPARISON 3)
Doubled f-Pawns = Asset,
No.70, After 12.exf4

In No.70 (after 12.exf4, above-right), while White's d4-Pawn can be attacked from the front (as it is at present, by Black's Queen), H&M-S point out that it's safe front such danger, as: "White can defend it sufficiently with pieces that are also active in other directions:"

In addition, Black's inability to coordinate his heavy Pieces through the Center, because of the central Cramp caused by Black's e6-Pawn, means White's Isolated d4-Pawn isn't in any danger.


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PGN

[Event "Sauerbrunn"]
[Site "Sauerbrunn"]
[Date "1929.??.??"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "?"]
[Result "1-0"]
[White "Akiba Rubinstein"]
[Black "Esteban Canal"]
[ECO "D37"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "105"]

1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Nf3 Be7 5.Bf4 c6 6.e3 Nbd7 7.h3 O-O 8.Qc2 dxc4 9.Bxc4 Nb6 10.Bb3 Nfd5 {PCC p.101 No.70} 11.O-O Nxf4 12.exf4 Nd5 13.g3 Nxc3 14.Qxc3 Qd6 15.Rac1 Bd7 16.Ne5 Rad8 17.Rfd1 Bc8 18.a3 Bf6 19.Qe3 Qe7 20.h4 Rd6 21.h5 Rfd8 22.Rc3 g6 23.Bc2 Qf8 24.hxg6 hxg6 25.g4 Qe8 26.g5 Bg7 27.Be4 Qe7 28.Kg2 Qc7 29.b4 a6 30.Rcd3 b6 31.Qh3 Bb7 32.Qf3 Qe7 33.Kh2 Qc7 34.Kh3 Qe7 35.a4 Bxe5 36.fxe5 R6d7 37.Qf6 Qxf6 38.gxf6 Kh7 39.Kg4 Rh8 40.Rh1+ Kg8 41.Rxh8+ Kxh8 42.b5 cxb5 43.Bxb7 Rxb7 44.axb5 axb5 45.d5 exd5 46.Rxd5 Kh7 47.Rxb5 Rb8 48.f4 Kh6 49.Rb1 Kh7 50.Kg5 b5 51.e6 fxe6 52.Rh1+ Kg8 53.Kxg6 1-0

End.

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