Point Count Chess, NO.64, p96
Kostic v. Capablanca, 1919
This example serves as a warning to the player about to force their opponent to take on Doubled Pawns.
H&M-S say: "...you pay a certain price almost every time you double an adverse pawn -- by opening a file for your opponent."
Doubled Pawns, File-Opening
Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.96 No.64, after 6.Qb3
After: 1.d4 Nf6 2.Nf3 e6 3.Bg5 c5 4.e3 Nc6 5.c3 Qb6 6.Qb3
1. The threat of Doubled Pawns, on the b-file.
After 1.d4 to 6.Qb3
After 1.d4 to 6.Qb3, there's a stand-off between the adverse Queens, on the b-file.
Neither sides wants their Queen to be the first to capture the opposing Queen, because, while it will cause their opponent to form Doubled Pawns on the b-file; it will also give their opponent the benefit of the Half-Open a-file, with their Queen Rook bearing down against the enemy Pawn, at the other end of the a-file.
2. Black gets Doubled Pawns, on the b-file
After 12.Qxb6 axb6
After 12.Qxb6 axb6, White's Queen captures Black's Queen (12.Qb3xb6), forcing Black's a-Pawn to complete the trade (12...a7xb6), leaving Black with Double Pawns on the b-file.
The Result of Doubled Pawns, File-Opening...
(RESULT) Doubled Pawns,
After 12.Qxb6 axb6
Summary of Doubled Pawns, File-Opening...
Comparison of the Value of Files that are Opened,
as a result of Doubled Pawns....
Here, I just wanted to do a quick comparison between No.63 and No.64, to get a rough idea of when it may be okay to force Doubled Pawns on your opponent, and when not to: when the File that becomes Half-Open will be of greater value to the opponent, than the Doubled Pawns that they also incur.
In No.63 (after 6.bxc3, below-left), the Half-Open b-file appears to have little value, for White.
Black is able to defend against White's Queen Rook coming to the Half-Open b-file (Ra1-b1), in the process of developing his own Queenside forces.
Another reason the Half-Open b-file is of little value to White, is the effort it would take to build his forces for such an attack. H&M-S say: "A White rook on the file bites on granite unless White can engineer a full-scale queen-side attack -- in contravention of his natural king-side attack based on P-K4 (e2-e4)."
White's Doubled c-Pawns
and Half-Open b-file,
No.63, After 6.bxc3
Black's Doubled b-Pawns
and Half-Open a-file,
No.64, After 12.axb6
In No.64 (after 12.axb6, above-right), despite having Doubled b-Pawns, the Half-Open a-file appears to be of value, to Black.
Black's Ra8 applies frontal pressure down the Half-Open a-file, against White's a2-Pawn.
Black's Ra8 also has the potential to take up posts at either a5 or a4 (supported by the leading Doubled b-Pawn, in both cases), for a positional advantage.