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(Offside Pawn Majority)

Pawn Majorities
The Offside Majority (2 of 2)

Point Count Chess, NO.183, p259-260
Eliskases v. Flohr, 1937

In this example, Black gets the Offside Pawn Majority, on the Queenside, due to an exchange of Pawns on the c- & d-files, followed by both adverse Kings Castling to the Kingside.

Remember, as was the case in No.182, the Offside Pawn Majority will be used to force through a Passed Pawn ... However that early Passed Pawn will be a Decoy, and it will be one of Black's Pawns over the opposite side of the board (the Kingside, in this case), which will become the primary target for Promotion (for the game-winning advantage).
Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.259, No.183, after 15...Be6
  2. Result of the Offside Majority (2 of 2).
  3. Summary of the Offside Majority (2 of 2).
  4. PGN

The Offside Majority (2 of 2)
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.259, No.183, after 15...Be6

After: 1.d4 Nf6 2.c4 g6 3.Nc3 d5 4.Bf4 Bg7 5.e3 O-O 6.Nf3 c5 7.cxd5 Nxd5 8.Be5 Nxc3 9.bxc3 cxd4 10.Bxg7 Kxg7 11.cxd4 Qa5+ 12.Qd2 Nc6 13.Be2 Rd8 14.Qxa5 Nxa5 15.O-O Be6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Page 259
After: 15...Be6

1. The First Four Exchanges (2x Pawn, 1x Knight, 1x dark-Bishop)

At the end of the following four groups of exchanges, Black will have his Offside Pawn Majority, consisting of his a- & b-Pawns, and they'll be up against (what will be) White's Isolated a-Pawn.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 1.d4 to 3...d5
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 1.d4 to 3...d5
After 1.d4 to 3...d5, White's c4-Pawn (2.c2-c4) and Black's d5-Pawn (3...d7-d5) are in position, for the first of the two sets of Pawn exchanges.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 4.Bf4 to 6...c5
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 4.Bf4 to 6...c5
After 4.Bf4 to 6...c5, there's a period of further development, which includes Black's c5-Pawn getting into position, for the second of the two sets of Pawn exchanges.
At this point, all units, except for White's dark-Bishop (Bf4 will go to e5), are in position to be exchanged (in order, below):
  1. Pawn exchange #1: White's c4-Pawn takes Black's d5-Pawn;
  2. Knight exchange: Black's Nf6 takes White's Nc3;
  3. Dark-Bishop exchange: White's Be5 takes Black's Bg7;
  4. Pawn exchange #2: Black's c5-Pawn takes White's d4-Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 7.cxd5 Nxd5
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 7.cxd5 Nxd5
After 7.cxd5 Nxd5, the first of the exchanges is made, led by White's c4-Pawn, which captures Black's d5-Pawn (7.c4xd5).

Black's King Knight completes the trade (7...Nf6xd5) and sets itself up to initiate the Knight exchange (against White's Nc3).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 8.Be5 Nxc3 9.bxc3
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 8.Be5 Nxc3 9.bxc3
After 8.Be5 Nxc3 9.bxc3, the second of the exchanges is made, led by Black's Nd5, which waits for White to post his dark-Bishop onto the e5-Outpost (8.Bf4-e5), before capturing White's Queen Knight (8...Nd5xc3).

White's b-Pawn completes the trade (9.b2xc3) and, in the process leaves White's a-Pawn totally Isolated. This will be the Pawn Minority that will end up facing Black's Offside Pawn Majority (the a- & b-Pawns).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 9...cxd4 10.Bxg7
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 9...cxd4 10.Bxg7
After 9...cxd4 10.Bxg7, the third and fourth sets of exchanges are entered into, as Black's c5-Pawn takes White's d4-Pawn (9...c5xd4), and as White chooses to initiate the dark-Bishop exchange (10.Be5xg7).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 10...Kxg7 11.cxd4
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 10...Kxg7 11.cxd4
After 10...Kxg7 11.cxd4, the third and fourth sets of exchanges are completed, as Black's King completes the dark-Bishop trade (10...Kg8xg7), and White's c3-Pawn completes the second of the two sets of Pawns, (11.c3xd4).

White gains a 2-v-1 in the Center, in the process, but it's worth noting that he still lost the game.
The advantage of a 2-v-1 is always delayed. It's considered a countable advantage, but it's possible the owner of it may never get to realize its benefits, and that's what happened to White, in this game.

2. The Fifth Exchange (off go the Queens)

White's Queen is one of the final few threats that, er, threatens to scupper or deny Black's Offside Pawn Majority their moment of glory. So, Black plays to trade both Queens off the board ...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 11...Qa5+ 12.Qd2 Nc6
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 11...Qa5+ 12.Qd2 Nc6
After 11...Qa5+ 12.Qd2 Nc6, Black's Queen attacks the exposed White King (11.Qd8-a5+).

To maintain his option to Castle, White cannot move his King out of check, so opts to interpose with his Queen (12.Qd1-d2).

The development of Black's Queen Knight (12...Nb8-c6) readies it to complete the Queen exchange on a5.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 13.Be2 Rd8
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 13.Be2 Rd8
After 13.Be2 Rd8, White takes a brief moment to clear his back rank on the Kingside, by developing his light-Bishop (13.Bf1-e2), to prepare the way for Castling.

Black refrains from being the one to make the Queen exchange, choosing instead to bring his King Rook to the Half-open d-file (13...Rf8-d8).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 14.Qxa5 Nxa5
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 14.Qxa5 Nxa5
After 14.Qxa5 Nxa5, the fifth of the exchanges is made, led by White's Queen, which captures Black's Queen (14.Qd2xa5).

Black's Nc6 completes the trade (14...Nc6xa5).

3. Castling completes the creation of Black's Offside Pawn Majority

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 15.O-O
Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 15.O-O
After 15.O-O, Black gains his Offside Pawn Majority, as White Castles to the Kingside (15.O-O).

With a gaping chasm over on the Queenside, the Kingside is the only safe direction to go.

Black had already Castled Kingside, within five moves of the game's start (5...O-O). With both Kings across on the same Kingside flank, Black's a- & b-Pawns become the Offside Pawn Majority, against White's Isolated a-Pawn (the Pawn Minority).

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The Result of the Offside Majority (2 of 2)...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 16.Be6
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 16.Be6
After 16.Be6, Black applies direct pressure against White's Isolated a-Pawn, with his light-Bishop (16.Bc8-e6).

Black's sole focus now is to use his Offside Pawn Majority to force through a Passed Pawn (remember, this will be a Decoy, and not one destined for Promotion -- that honor will go to one of Black's Kingside Pawns).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 16...Bg4
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 16...Bg4
After 16...Bg4, Black's light-Bishop is sent to attack White's Nf3 (6...Be6-g4).

H&M-S noted that Black ignored the option of exchanging light-Bishops. The reason is given, below ...
Why Black Didn't Exchange Bishops ...

H&M-S point out the significance of Black going after White's Knight, rather than seeking to trade light-Bishops (e.g. 6...Be6-c4 7.Be2xc4 Na5xc4) ...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - The Offside Majority (2 of 2), Why Black Didn't Exchange Bishops, After 21.d5 Nc4 » 22...Nd6
The Offside Majority (2 of 2), Why
Black Didn't Exchange Bishops
After 21.d5 Nc4 » 22...Nd6
H&M-S look ahead to the position of White's Center Pawns, which they say "are going to be stopped on light squares," ... and in the game, they do: White's e4-Pawn is already occupying a light square, and then 21.d4-d5 puts White's d-Pawn onto a light square, too.

All it takes is for Black to relocate his Knight (21...Na5-c4 » 22...Nc4-d6), and White finds both his Center Pawns fixed on light squares.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - The Offside Majority (2 of 2), Why Black Didn't Exchange Bishops, After 21.d5 Nc4 » 22...Nd6
The Offside Majority (2 of 2), Why
Black Didn't Exchange Bishops
After 21.d5 Nc4 » 22...Nd6
The significance of the light squares, H&M-S point out, is that White's Pawns will compromise the mobility of their light-Bishop, making it weaker since a Bishop needs clear diagonals to be effective -- especially clear diagonals through the Center ...

Black Exchanges Bishop for Knight ...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - The Offside Majority (2 of 2), Why Black Didn't Exchange Bishops, After 18...Bxf3 19.Bxf3
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
Black Exchanges Bishop for Knight
After 18...Bxf3 19.Bxf3
Because White still had his King Knight on the board, which would be able to jump over and around the obstacles (White's Center Pawns), Black chose to send his light-Bishop to attack White's Nf3.

The removal of the Knight (18...Bg4xf3 19.Be2xf3), leaves White with the weaker light-Bishop, reducing White's ability to defend against the impending attack by Black's Offside Pawn Majority.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 23.Rb1 to 24...Rdc8
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 23.Rb1 to 24...Rdc8
After 23.Rb1 to 24...Rdc8, White appears to shape-up to take on the threat from the inevitable Black Pawn advance on the Queenside, as he brings his Queen Rook out to attack White's b-Pawn (23.Ra1-b1).

Black's counterplay brings both Rooks into Battery formation along the Open c-file. Black's intention is to trade ALL Rooks off the board, Simplifying the position to remove the last of the main threats to Black's Offside Pawn Majority (and their goal of forcing through the "Decoy" Passed Pawn).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 25...Rc1+ 26.Rxc1 Rxc1+
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 25...Rc1+ 26.Rxc1 Rxc1+
After 25...Rc1+ 26.Rxc1 Rxc1+, Black successfully trades the first pair of adverse Rooks off the board, (25...Rc4-c1+ 26.Rb1xc1); his remaining Rook completes the trade (26...Rc8xc1+), setting itself up nicely to force the second and final Rook exchange ...
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 27.Re1 Rxe1+ 28.Kxe1
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 27.Re1 Rxe1+ 28.Kxe1
After 27.Re1 Rxe1+ 28.Kxe1, Black successfully trades the second pair of adverse Rooks off the board, as White's remaining Rook is forced to interpose, to block the check (27.Re2-e1) ...

That enables Black's Rook to capture (27...Rc1xe1+) and White's King has to complete the trade (28.Kf1xe1).

The result of the Rook exchange can clearly be seen, as it only serves to enhance the threat from Black's Offside Pawn Majority, against White's Isolated a-Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 1.x
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 28...f5 29.f3 fxe4 30.fxe4
After 28...f5 29.f3 fxe4 30.fxe4, before Black begins the advance of his Offside Pawn Majority, he begins to clear part of the Kingside, to make it easier, when the time comes, to convert one of his Kingside Pawns into the main Passed Pawn that will help Black his game-winning advantage!

Black leads the attack with his f-Pawn (28...f7-f5) and exchanges onto e4 (29...f5xe4).

White's f-Pawn completes the trade (29.f2-f3 » 30.f4xe5), but reduces the Pawns on the Kingside flank from three to two. Later on, Black takes his Knight on a tour around the Queenside and across to the Kingside, to help remove another of them (White's g-Pawn gets kicked off the board).

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 30...b5 and 31...a5
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 30...b5 » 31...a5
After 30...b5 » 31...a5, Black mobilizes his Offside Pawn Majority, bringing forward both Pawns to their front line (30...b7-b5 & 31...a7-a5, respectively).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 32.Kd3 to 35...Kd8
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 32.Kd3 to 35...Kd8
After 32.Kd3 to 35...Kd8, both Black's Offside Pawn Majority, and White's Isolated a-Pawn, are held in their current positions, while units elsewhere are repositioned:
  • The Kings (32.Kd2-d3 Kg7-f6 » 33...Kf6-e7 » 35...Ke7-d8) and White's Bishop (33.Bg2-f3 » 35.Bf3-d1) turn their focus to events on the Queenside.

  • There's a slight advance of the Kingside Pawns (34.h2-h4 h7-h6).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 36.a4 bxa4 37.Bxa4
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 36.a4 bxa4 37.Bxa4
After 36.a4 bxa4 37.Bxa4, White gains his Decoy Passed Pawn on the Queenside.

An exchange of Pawns, led in fact by White's Isolated a-Pawn, leads to Black's a-Pawn becoming a Passed Pawn ...

Black's a-Pawn is also an Isolated, but its weakness is of little concern, as this Pawn doesn't need to be guided to Promotion -- it's job, now, is to pull White's King far enough away from his Kingside Pawns, so that he cannot hope to return in time to save them.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 37...Kc7 to 43...Nf1
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 37...Kc7 to 43...Nf1
After 37...Kc7 to 43...Nf1, White's King has been allowed to get within strike range of White's "Decoy" Passed Pawn, with Black's King even stepping kindly out of the way, to enable White's King to get there (39.Kd3-c3 40.Kc3-b3 Kb5-c5 41.Kb3-a4).

Soon after that, Black was able to spend his moves bringing his Knight down through the Queenside and across to the Kingside (41...Nd6-c4 » 42...Nc4-d2 » 43...Nd2-f1), where it now sits, poised to take-out White's undefended g3-Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 44.Kxa5 Nxg3
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 44.Kxa5 Nxg3
After 44.Kxa5 Nxg3, White's King captures White's "Decoy" Passed Pawn (44.Ka4xa5); Black's Knight captures White's undefended g-Pawn (44...Nf1xg3).

White's King is now too far removed from his newly Isolated h-Pawn, which is on dark-squares and so cannot be defended by White's light-Bishop.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 45...Nh5 and 47...Nf6 48.d6
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 45...Nh5 » 47...Nf6 48.d6
After 45...Nh5 » 47...Nf6 48.d6, Black's Knight moves across to f6 (45...Ng3-h5 » 46...Nh5-f6), to ensure White's d-Pawn (48.d5-d6) cannot make its own dash for Promotion.

White is now free to force through the Passed Pawn on the Kingside.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After 48...g5 49.hxg5 hxg5
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 48...g5 49.hxg5 hxg5
After 48...g5 49.hxg5 hxg5, the Kingside Pawn exchanges ends with White's h-Pawn becoming the Passed Pawn that helps White win the game.
IMPORTANT: In the No.182 (the "skeletal" example), H&M-S focus on White's Kingside Pawns forcing through a Passed Pawn, which helps to win the game through it gaining Promotion ...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 183 - Pawn Majorities, The Offside Majority (2 of 2), After After 54...g2
(RESULT) Pawn Majorities,
The Offside Majority (2 of 2),
After 54...g2
After 54...g2, however, here in No.183, Black's Kingside Passed Pawn DOESN'T gain Promotion, but is instead sacrificed for one final exchange, so that Black can remove White's light-Bishop.

White resigns when it's evident that Black's King will be able to remove White's e4-Pawn, leaving White's King alone on the board and unable to prevent Black's King from escorting his e5-Pawn, down to gain the game-winning Promotion.

Okay, so it's just a slight twist on H&M-S's example (No.182), but it's one worth pointing out.


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Summary of the Offside Majority (2 of 2)...

  1. Exchanges are made to clear the board, for the benefit of Black's Offside Pawn Majority:

    • Two Queenside Pawns, from the b- & c-files
      (7.c4xd5 » 9...c5xd4 » 11.c3xd4);

    • Both enemy Knights
      (Queenside: 8...Nd5xc3; Kingside: 18...Bg4xf3);

    • The Queens
      (15...Nc6xa5);

    • Both enemy Rooks
      (26...Rc8xc1+ » 27...Rc1xe1+).

  2. Black gains the Queenside Pawn Majority, at the end of the first four sets of exchanges, as White's c3-Pawn completes the second of the two sets of Pawn trades (11.c3xd4).

  3. With Black's Queenside Pawn Majority realized, Black gains the Offside Pawn Majority, when both Kings have been Castled to the Kingside (Black: 5...O-O; White: 15...O-O).

  4. Black begins clearing the enemy Pawns on the Kingside, in preparation for the forceful creation of his Kingside Passed Pawn. First, Black exchanges f-Pawns, onto e4 (29...f5xe4 30.f3xe4).

  5. Black mobilizes his Queenside Pawn Majority, advancing both to their front line (30...b7-b5 & 31...a7-a5), as they close in on the enemy's Isolated a-Pawn.

  6. Pawns on the Kingside flank are brought closer together (34.h2-h4 h7-h6). White's focus is to defend the Kingside position; Black's focus is to prepare to force through a Passed Pawn on the Kingside, once White's King has gone off to deal with Black's "Decoy" Passed Pawn, on the Queenside.

  7. Black dissolves his Queenside Pawn Majority, forcing through a Passed Pawn (36.a2-a4 b5xa4) -- the a5-Pawn, after White's light-Bishop completes the trade (37.Bd1xa4).

  8. Black's Queenside Passed Pawn is a Decoy; it's not intended for Promotion, but to compel White's King to leave the defence of his Kingside Pawns. Black allows his Passed Pawn to be captured by White's King (44.Ka4xa5).

  9. Black continues clearing the enemy Pawns on the Kingside, removing the g-Pawn with his Knight, after it had circled round via the Queenside, to attack White's g-Pawn, from the rear (41...Nd6-c4 » 42...Nc4-d2 » 43...Nd2-f1 » 44...Nf1xg3).

  10. Black's Knight ensures White's d-Pawn cannot makes its own dash for Promotion. After having removed White's g-Pawn, Black's Knight is moved, via h5, to guard the d6-square, from f6 (45...Ng3-h5 » 46...Nh5-f6).

  11. Black forces through his Kingside Passed Pawn, for his game-winning advantage. Black's h-Pawn completes the Pawn exchange (48...g5 49.hxg5 hxg5), becoming the Passed Pawn -- although it is eventually captured, in order to trade White's last Piece (light-Bishop), off the board.

  12. White resigns, (57...Kg2-f3) as he won't be able to prevent Black's King freeing his e5-Pawn and escorting it down to gain Promotion.

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PGN

[Event "Semmering"]
[Site "Semmering"]
[Date "1937"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "?"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Erich Eliskases"]
[Black "Salomon Flohr"]
[ECO "D93"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "114"]

1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 d5 4. Bf4 Bg7 5. e3 O-O 6. Nf3 c5 7. cxd5 Nxd5 8. Be5 Nxc3 9. bxc3 cxd4 10. Bxg7 Kxg7 11. cxd4 Qa5+ 12. Qd2 Nc6 13. Be2 Rd8 14. Qxa5 Nxa5 15. O-O Be6 {PCC p.259 No.183} 16. e4 Bg4 17. Rfd1 e6 18. Kf1 Bxf3 19. Bxf3 Rac8 20. Rd2 e5 21. d5 Nc4 22. Re2 Nd6 23. Rb1 Rc4 24. g3 Rdc8 25. Bg2 Rc1+ 26. Rxc1 Rxc1+ 27. Re1 Rxe1+ 28. Kxe1 f5 29. f3 fxe4 30. fxe4 b5 31. Kd2 a5 32. Kd3 Kf6 33. Bf3 Ke7 34. h4 h6 35. Bd1 Kd8 36. a4 bxa4 37. Bxa4 Kc7 38. Bc2 Kb6 39. Kc3 Kb5 40. Kb3 Kc5 41. Ka4 Nc4 42. Bb3 Nd2 43. Bc2 Nf1 44. Kxa5 Nxg3 45. Ka4 Nh5 46. Kb3 Kd4 47. Kb4 Nf6 48. d6 g5 49. hxg5 hxg5 50. Kb5 g4 51. Bd1 g3 52. Bf3 Ke3 53. Bh1 Kf2 54. Kc6 g2 55. Bxg2 Kxg2 56. d7 Nxd7 57. Kxd7 Kf3 0-1

End.

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(Qualitative Pawn Majority)


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(Offside Pawn Majority)