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Passed Pawn
The Protected Passed Pawn

Point Count Chess, NO. 175, p250-251
Example Sequence

Throughout this example, watch how White's King never breaks beyond his front line (4th Rank) until Black has been compelled to advance his two Kingside Pawns to their front line (White's 5th Rank).

At that point, White launches his King into full-on attack mode, clearing both Black Pawns off the Kingside, which leaves White's solitary Kingside Pawn as a Passed Pawn that can be escorted up the board to gain Promotion.

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.250, No. 175, before 1.Ke3
  2. Result of the Protected Passed Pawn.
  3. Summary of the Protected Passed Pawn.
  4. PGN
Additional analysis includes the:

The Protected Passed Pawn
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.250, No. 175, before 1.Ke3

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - Page 250
Before: 1.Ke3

1. The situation

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, Before 1.Ke3
The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
Before 1.Ke3
Before 1.Ke3, White's b-Pawn is the Protected Passed Pawn. However, Black's King is too close, and would capture it just as it had gained Promotion (see the Rule of the Square).

Not only that, but Black's King would then have sufficient time to get back to his Kingside Pawn Majority, preventing White's King from removing them.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, Before 1.Ke3
The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
Before 1.Ke3
Before 1.Ke3, White needs to remove both of Black's Kingside Pawns, in order to turn his h-Pawn into the new Passed Pawn.

With two Passed Pawns, on opposite sides of the board, Black's King will be too stretched to stop both of White's Passed Pawns from gaining Promotion.

However, at present, as the diagram shows, Black's King is able to hover around the e6, e7 & d6 squares; there would be no way White's King can get by to capture Black's two Kingside Pawns.

H&M-S point out that White's only hope is to compel Black to advance his g- & h-Pawns forward just enough, to prevent Black's King from defending them, while also being close enough to White's Protected Passed Pawn, which could make a break for Promotion, if Black's King gives it enough of a head-start (again, see the Rule of the Square).

2. How White compels Black to advance his Kingside Pawns

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, After 1.Ke3 and 2.Kf4
The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
After 1.Ke3 » 2.Kf4
After 1.Ke3 » 2.Kf4, White's King pretends he's heading straight for Black's two Kingside Pawns.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, After 3.Ke4, 4.Kd4 and 5.Kc4
The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
After 3.Ke4 » 4.Kd4 » 5.Kc4
After 3.Ke4 » 4.Kd4 » 5.Kc4, White changes direction, peeling left, across the 4th Rank to his Queenside Pawns.

Black's King is forced to stay Queenside, and within attacking range of the squares c5-c6-c7, else White's King will be able to escort his Passed Pawn all the way up the b-file, to gain Promotion, and there wouldn't be any way for Black's King to stop it happening ...

This means that, in order to stay in the game (else resign), Black is forced, or compelled, to advance his Kingside Pawns, which is exactly what White wants!

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, After 5...g6 to 9.Ke4
The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
After 5...g6 to 9.Ke4
After 5...g6 to 9.Ke4, Black advances both h- & g-Pawns, until they reach their front line, in phalanx formation (side-by-side).

During Black's Pawn moves, White focuses all his moves on getting his King back across to the Kingside, as he gears-up to wiping both Black Pawns off the board.

Note: there's a brief shimmy of White's King (green arrows), as he briefly goes toward the Kingside (6.Kc4-d4), then steps back to c4 (7.Kd4-c4), while Black's Pawns step a little closer to their front line.

... And then White fully commits his King to coming back across to the Kingside, toward Black's Pawns (8.Kc4-d4 » 9.Kd4-e4).

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, After 9...Ke6 10.b6 Kd6
The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
After 9...Ke6 10.b6 Kd6
After 9...Ke6 10.b6 Kd6, Black's King is desperate to go Kingside and stop White from launching his attack on Black's g- & h-Pawns, making that first step to shadow White's King (9...Kd6-e6).

However, a simple advance by White's Passed Pawn (10.b5-b6), pulls Black's King straight back to the Queenside (10...Ke6-d6).

White's b-Pawn is no longer a Protected Passed Pawn, having broken away from the defending a4-Pawn.

But, it's no longer necessary, as White's King is able to take-out both Black Pawns on the Kingside, creating a new Passed Pawn ...

White's b-Pawn becomes the Decoy; it's allowed to be sacrificed to keep Black's King away from the Kingside, so that White's King can take-out the two Black Kingside Pawns, turning White's h-Pawn into the Passed Pawn ... and THAT's the Pawn that White intends to escort up the board, to gain Promotion. White has what he wants, and is now at liberty to remove Black's two-Pawn Majority ...

It's at this point I made my observation about which Pawn is actually the one that a player should focus on, as being the real, long-term (strategical) candidate for Promotion.


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The Result of the Protected Passed Pawn...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, After 11.Kf5, 12.Kxg5 and 13.Kxh5
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
After 11.Kf5 » 12.Kxg5 » 13.Kxh5
After 11.Kf5 » 12.Kxg5 » 13.Kxh5, White's King captures Black's two Kingside Pawns, in quick succession.

Black's King has taken-out White's original Passed Pawn (12...Kc6xb6), but it's no concern to White, who has created a new Passed Pawn, on the h-file.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, The Protected Passed Pawn, After 1.x
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Protected Passed Pawn,
After 14.h4
After 14.h4, White begins to march his h-Pawn up toward its Promotion square (h8). There's no way Black's King can get beyond White's King, so Promotion would be inevitable, for White's h-Pawn.

White will regain a Queen and get Black's a-Pawn, before Black's King can free his a-Pawn and get it Promoted. And that's how White wins.

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Summary of the Protected Passed Pawn...

  1. White's King must compel Black's Kingside Pawn Majority to advance. White's Protected Passed Pawn is unable to make a dash for Promotion, as Black's King is close enough to catch it, just as it reaches the Promotion square. Also, Black's King is able to move about the e6-e7-d6 range of squares, totally preventing White's King from getting in around the back of Black's Kingside Pawn Majority, to take them out. Black's Kingside Pawns must be coaxed forward by ensuring Black doesn't have the option of continually moving his King. Tie up the King (to Queenside duties) and Black will be forced to move his Kingside Pawns, or resign from the game.

  2. White begins by advancing his King toward Black's Kingside Pawn Majority, before switching direction and coming across to his Queenside Pawns. Black's King is forced to stay on the Queenside, to prevent White's King from rising up the c-file, to escort his Protected Passed Pawn all the way to gain Promotion; Black's only option is to advance his Kingside Pawns (or resign).

  3. As Black's Kingside Pawns begin their journey toward their front line, White begins to bring his King back to the Kingside. It may not always be required, but just in case, remember there was that little shimmy by White's King (6.Kc4-d4 » 7.Kd4-c4 » 8.Kc4-d4), to time his King's arrival at e4, just as Black's Pawns formed up into their phalanx, on their front line (White's 5th Rank).

  4. White's Protected Passed Pawn acted as a Decoy. If Black's King starts to shadow White's King across to the Kingside, the advance of the Passed Pawn, and the threat to gain Promotion, appears sufficient to compel Black's King to return and stay Queenside.

  5. White's King is free to remove both Black Pawns, turning his h-Pawn into a new Passed Pawn, which will be elevated to gain Promotion. Black's King is at liberty to capture the original Passed Pawn; it has no chance of preventing the Promotion of White's h-Pawn (not with White's King to escort it safely up the file). White has a won game.

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Observation of the Pawn(s) chosen for Promotion...

It's beginning to look like the early Passed Pawn, or the Pawn Majority (which contains the Potential Passed Pawn), is always, or at least very often, never the one that actually gets to go all the way toward Promotion ...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, Observation, No.175, After 11...Kc6
(OBSERVATION) The Passed Pawn,
No.175, After 11...Kc6
In No.175, White's original Passed Pawn (on the b-file) is merely the Decoy, to buy time for White to convert a Passed Pawn on the very opposite side of the board, so that, once Simplified (traded-down) to just Kings and Pawns, the enemy King will be unable to stop the newly-created Passed Pawn from being Promoted.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, Observation, No.173, After 9.Kf3
(OBSERVATION) The Passed Pawn,
No.173, After 9.Kf3
In No.173, H&M-S show their example, where White starts with a Passed b-Pawn, but at the end of the sequence, the White King has gone across to free his g-Pawn.

With the King across on the Kingside, it'd make more sense to continue guiding the Passed g-Pawn up to gain Promotion.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, Observation, No.178, After 4.hxg6
(OBSERVATION) The Passed Pawn,
No.178, After 4.hxg6
In No.178, White doesn't have any Passed Pawns, initially; but he does have a Potential Passed Pawn, on the Kingside (his 2-v-1 is sufficient to force a Passed Pawn).

However, with the Black King in the vicinity, once the Passed Pawn is created (4.hxg6), Black's King can take it out. So, White ends up leaving his Kingside Pawns to their fate, in order to keep Black's King away from the Queenside Pawns ...

White's King is then at liberty to create a Passed Pawn on the Queenside, with whichever White Pawn remains, and that will be the one that is guided up to gain Promotion.

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 175 - The Passed Pawn, Observation, No.179, After 38.h5
(OBSERVATION) The Passed Pawn,
No.179, After 38.h5
In No.179, Black has a Kingside Pawn Majority, which equates to the Potential Passed Pawn: Black could force a Passed Pawn (with the help of his King), due to having one extra Pawn.

However, Black allows these Pawns to be sacrificed, in order to occupy White's King. Black's King then works to convert his b-Pawn to a Passed Pawn, which is then escorted down to gain Promotion.

So, in those four cases, the Pawn that's already a Passed Pawn; or the Pawn Majority that you'd think would have the greater chance of becoming a Passed Pawn, are actually chosen as sacrifices, just to keep the enemy King occupied.

Meanwhile, the Pawn that's considered part of the Pawn Minority (on the opposite side of the board), is the one that is to be converted into the main Passed Pawn, destined for Promotion (or, at the very least, the threat of Promotion which, in the Endgame phase, when down to just Kings and Pawns, can often force your opponent to resign, when faced with the inevitable).


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PGN

[Event "PCC, p250-251 Diagram NO. 175"]
[Site "?"]
[Date "????.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Horowitz"]
[Black "Mott-Smith"]
[Result "*"]
[SetUp "1"]
[FEN "8/6pp/8/pP2k3/P7/8/4K2P/8 w - - 0 0"]
[PlyCount "27"]

{PCC, p250 Diagram NO.175} 1. Ke3 Kd5 2. Kf4 Kd6 3. Ke4 Ke6 4. Kd4 Kd6 5. Kc4 g6 6. Kd4 h6 7. Kc4 g5 8. Kd4 h5 9. Ke4 Ke6 10. b6 Kd6 11. Kf5 Kc6 12. Kxg5 Kxb6 13. Kxh5 Kc5 14. h4 *

End.

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