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Passed Pawn
The Midgame Passed Pawn

Point Count Chess, NO. 174A to NO. 174B, p248
Unzicker v. Donner, 1955

This example shows White's d-Pawn becoming the Midgame Passed Pawn, and how White coordinates his army to push it all the way up to Black's second rank (d7), culminating in Black's resignation.

Even though White played with his brain in gear (no mistakes), the creation of White's Midgame Passed Pawn came about due to an error by Black, who advanced his c-Pawn prematurely (according to H&M-S).

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the two positions featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.248, No. 174A, after 8...c5
  2. PCC, p.249, No. 174B, after 18.Nc3
  3. Result of the Midgame Passed Pawn.
  4. Summary of the Midgame Passed Pawn.
  5. PGN

The Midgame Passed Pawn
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.248, No. 174A, after 8...c5

After: 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Nf3 Be7 6.Bd3 Ngf6 7.Qe2 Nxe4 8.Bxe4 c5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174A - Page 248
After: 8...c5

1. White Gains the Midgame Passed Pawn

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174a - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 1.e4 e6 2.d4
The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 1.e4 e6 2.d4
After 1.e4 e6 2.d4, The French Defence (1.e2-e4 e7-e6) lets White bring out his d-Pawn to the front line (2.d2-d4), forming a 2-Pawn Phalanx with the e4-Pawn.

White's d-Pawn goes on to become the Midgame Passed Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174a - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 2...d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4
The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 2...d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4
After 2...d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4, Black has swapped-off his d-Pawn (2...d7-d5 3.Nb1-c3 d5xe4 4.Nc3xe4), taking-out White's e-Pawn and gaining the Half-open d-file, with his Qd8 bearing down against White's d4-Pawn.

White has the 4th v. 3rd advantage, with his d4-Pawn, versus Black's e6-Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174a - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 4...Nd7 to 7.Qe2
The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 4...Nd7 to 7.Qe2
After 4...Nd7 to 7.Qe2, there's a phase of further development, without any more captures.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174a - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 7...Nxe4 8.Bxe4
The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 7...Nxe4 8.Bxe4
After 7...Nxe4 8.Bxe4, Black initiates a Knight exchange (7...Nf6xe4).

White's light-Bishop completes the trade (8.Bd3xe4).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174a - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 8...c5 9.d5 e5
The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 8...c5 9.d5 e5
After 8...c5 9.d5 e5, White's d-Pawn becomes the Midgame Passed Pawn.

Black attacks White's d-Pawn, with the advance of his c-Pawn (8...c7-c5).

White's d-Pawn advances, counter attacking Black's e-Pawn (9.d4-d5). Black's e-Pawn, evading the attack (9...e6-e5) creates White's Midgame Passed Pawn (d5).
H&M-S suggest Black made an error here: "The attack on the queen pawn is strategically correct, but the move is premature. Black should first play N-B3 (8...Nd7-f6) and O-O (9...O-O)."

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Position #2, My Analysis
PCC, p.249, No. 174B, after 18.Nc3

After: 9.d5 e5 10.Bf5 O-O 11.O-O Bf6 12.Nd2 g6 13.Bxd7 Qxd7 14.Ne4 Bg7 15.Rd1 b6 16.Bh6 f5 17.Bxg7 Qxg7 18.Nc3

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174B - Page 249
After: 18.Nc3

(Carries straight through into the Result)


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The Result of the Midgame Passed Pawn...

Having gained the Midgame Passed Pawn, White seeks to provide it with the support it needs, before marching it up toward its Promotion square (d8).

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174 - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 10.Bf5 to 13.Bxd7
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 10.Bf5 to 13.Bxd7
After 10.Bf5 to 13.Bxd7, White trades his light-Bishop, to take-out Black's Nd7, which had to be removed, else it could maintain its position, Blockading White's Passed Pawn, denying it access to the d8 Promotion square.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174 - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 14.Ne4
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 14.Ne4
After 14.Ne4, White moves his remaining Knight into position, to prevent Black's dark-Bishop (Bg7) from getting out of an exchange of dark-Bishops.

White must remove Black's dark-Bishop from the board, as the Promotion square, for White's Passed Pawn, is a dark-square (d8), which Black's dark-Bishop can target, from the f6-square.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174 - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 15.Rd1
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 15.Rd1
After 15.Rd1, White brings his King Rook to the Open d-file, to support the imminent advance of White's Passed Pawn.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174 - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 16.Bh6 and 17.Bxg7 Qxg7
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 16.Bh6 » 17.Bxg7 Qxg7
After 16.Bh6 » 17.Bxg7 Qxg7, Having moved into attacking range (16.Bc1-h6) White's dark-Bishop successfully takes-out Black's dark-Bishop (17.Bh6xg7).

Black's Queen completes the trade (17...Qd7xg7).
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174 - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 19.a4 and 20.Qb5
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 19.a4 » 20.Qb5
After 19.a4 » 20.Qb5, White moves his a-Pawn into position (19.a2-a4), to support his Queen's expansion to b5 (20.Qe2-b5).

White's Queen now guards the d7-square, which her Passed Pawn has to travel through, to get to its d8 Promotion square.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 174 - The Passed Pawn, The Midgame Passed Pawn, After 21.d6
(RESULT) The Passed Pawn,
The Midgame Passed Pawn,
After 21.d6
After 21.d6, White resumes the advance of his Passed Pawn (21.d5-d6), taking it out of the attacking line of Black's Bb7.

White continues to coordinate his troops and focus on the one goal of pushing his Passed Pawn all the way up towards the d8 Promotion square.

White's d-Pawn never actually achieves Promotion, as its inevitability forces Black to resign, with the Passed Pawn supported and encamped on Black's second rank (d7).

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Summary of the Midgame Passed Pawn...

  1. The French Defence sets everything in motion (1.e2-e4 e7-e6), with White's d-Pawn being propelled to d4 (2.d2-d4), en route to becoming the Midgame Passed Pawn.

  2. An exchange of Pawns creates the Half-open d-file and White's 4th v. 3rd advantage, after 2...d7-d5 3.Nb1-c3 d5xe4 4.Nc3xe4.

  3. White's d-Pawn becomes the Midgame Passed Pawn, following further development, culminating in what H&M-S say was an error by Black -- the advance of his c-Pawn (8...c7-c5) was correct, but should have been made after ...Nd7-f6 & ...O-O. The error enable White to advance his d-Pawn (9.d4-d5), becoming the Midgame Passed Pawn, when Black chose not to capture it, but instead to advance his e-Pawn beyond attacking range (9...e6-e5).

  4. White focuses on pushing his Midgame Passed Pawn all the way up toward its Promotion square (d8). To enable this, White seeks to provide the Passed Pawn with the support it needs, including a series of swap-offs to remove a Blockading Knight (Nd7) and the diagonal threats from Black's Bishops. White also coordinates his troops -- specifically the Queen and King Rook -- to support the push of the d-Pawn towards Promotion.

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PGN

[Event "Goteborg izt (17)"]
[Site "Goteborg izt (17)"]
[Date "1955"]
[Round "?"]
[Result "1-0"]
[White "Wolfgang Unzicker"]
[Black "Jan Hein Donner"]
[ECO "C10"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "61"]

1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 dxe4 4. Nxe4 Nd7 5. Nf3 Be7 6. Bd3 Ngf6 7. Qe2 Nxe4 8. Bxe4 c5 {PCC p.248 No.174A} 9. d5 e5 10. Bf5 O-O 11. O-O Bf6 12. Nd2 g6 13. Bxd7 Qxd7 14. Ne4 Bg7 15. Rd1 b6 16. Bh6 f5 17. Bxg7 Qxg7 18. Nc3 {PCC p.249 No.174B} Bb7 19. a4 a5 20. Qb5 Qc7 21. d6 Qd8 22. Nd5 Bxd5 23. Rxd5 e4 24. Rad1 Kg7 25. d7 Rf6 26. h3 Re6 27. Qc4 Re7 28. Rd6 Ra7 29. Qc3+ Kg8 30. Qf6 Ra8 31. Qxe7 1-0

End.

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