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Greater Space
The Strategy of Restraint

Point Count Chess, NO. 136, p193-194
Taubenhaus v. Tarrasch, 1885

I've looked at Superior Development already, which involves getting your Pieces out from their game-starting squares, and onto "good" squares, as quickly as possible, ready for the Middlegame battle.

An alternative Strategy is use your Pawns, supported by a mixture of Pawns and Pieces, to suffocate your opponent's development. This is achieved by taking away key squares, especially in their own territory, which might otherwise be used to develop their own Pieces, prior to attacking your position.

The following example shows how Black gains Greater Space, in the Opening phase, by reducing the amount of space (number of squares) that White can safely develop his Pieces to ...

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.194, No. 136, after 13...a4
  2. Result of Black's Strategy of Restraint.
  3. PGN

Greater Space, The Strategy of Restraint
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.194, No. 136, after 13...a4

After: 1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 d5 3.e3 c5 4.Nf3 d4 5.Ne2 Nc6 6.Ng3 h5 7.a3 h4 8.Ne2 e5 9.d3 a5 10.h3 Bd7 11.e4 f6 12.Nh2 g5 13.Bd2 a4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - Page 194
After: 13...a4

In this example, Black gains the advantage of Greater Space, so I'm going to focus on his moves, leading up to H&M-S's featured position (No.136), to see what was key to achieving this advantage ...

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 1.c4 e6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 1.c4 e6
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 1.c4 e6
Black's e-Pawn has moved to e6, to support the advance of Black's d-Pawn, to d5.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 2.Nf3 d5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 2.Nf3 d5
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 2.Nf3 d5
Black's d5-Pawn is safe from capture, as 3.c3xd5 e6xd5 will maintain Black's current Control of the Center (White will have lost a Pawn, for no actual advantage).

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 3.e3 c5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 3.e3 c5
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 3.e3 c5
Black's c5-Pawn appears to have been advanced for two reasons:
  1. It blocks any further advance of White's c4-Pawn, which is key to White's Cramp.

  2. It supports the advance of Black's d5-Pawn, to d4, where it becomes an Advanced Pawn, at the head of an Advanced Chain (c5,d4), which causes more Cramp, for White, deeper in White's own territory.

Note, at this stage, White is ahead in the Tally of Developed Pieces, by one Tempo (2.Nb1-c3), as all Black's moves have been developing Pawns.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 4.Nf3 d4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 4.Nf3 d4
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 4.Nf3 d4
White has moved his d-Pawn again, ignoring the fact he is behind by two units, in the Tally of Developed Pieces. Yet, supported by the c5-Pawn and his Qd8, Black's d4-Pawn is safe from capture by White's e3-Pawn ...

It would allow Black's c5-Pawn to replace it, on d4, and White would still have the same problems, due to Black's cramping Pawn, at d4.

In addition, Black claws back a Tempo, as White is forced to move his Queen Knight, again, because of the attack from Black's d4-Pawn.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 5.Ne2 Nc6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 5.Ne2 Nc6
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 5.Ne2 Nc6
Black finally develops a Piece (5...Nb8-c6), and he's now only one unit behind, in the Tally of Developed Pieces, due to the forced second move, by White's Queen Knight.

Black's own Queen Knight, having just been developed, supports the d4-Pawn. Despite having two Knights trained on it, White won't want to lose either Minor Piece, to a Pawn (Black's c5-Pawn, which keeps the d4-Pawn safe).
Space Advantage, for Black: Notice the effect of Black's d4-Pawn, which denies White's Pieces access to the c3-square, restricting further development options, for White's army. White's restricted Space is to Black's advantage.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 6.Ng3 h5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 6.Ng3 h5
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 6.Ng3 h5
This one Pawn move takes away two light-squares from White's army ...
  1. The h5-Pawn keeps White's Pieces out of g4;

  2. With nothing to support it, White's Ng3 is kept out of h5, as well as being denied capture of the Pawn that's on it, by White's Rh8.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 7.a3 h4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 7.a3 h4
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 7.a3 h4
Black moves his h-Pawn again, but this lost Tempo for developing Pieces is offset by White's Ng3 (his Queen Knight), having to be moved yet again.

In the Tally of Developed Pieces, Black is still only one unit behind, in the development race.

Note, that Black's h4-Pawn is supported by both Qd8 & Rh8. White doesn't have any answer for this, and won't capture with his Nf3.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 8.Ne2 e5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 8.Ne2 e5
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 8.Ne2 e5
After Black's Knight is sent back to e2, Black reinforces his key d4-Pawn, with his e-Pawn advance, to e5, giving Black the advantage of an Advanced Salient (c5,d4,e5) ...

This collectively denies White's Pieces access to four squares, in White's own territory (b4,c3,d4,f4).

I've not included e3 in that list, as White's own e3-Pawn denies White's Pieces access to that square, and I'm focusing on Black's restraining activities.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 9.d3 a5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 9.d3 a5
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 9.d3 a5
Black's a5-Pawn is in a similar situation to the h4-Pawn, being defended by both a Rook and Queen, while also denying White's Pieces access to a square in White's own territory (b4 is now guarded by two Black Pawns, plus the Nc6).

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 10.h3 Bd7

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 10.h3 Bd7
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 10.h3 Bd7
White's h-Pawn could only make it to its third rank, before becoming stuck. The Space Advantage created by Black's h-Pawn, is clear to see, when you contrast the Greater Space in front of Black's Rh8, with the pathetic one square of Space in front of White's Rh1.

Notice how White's increasing Cramp means he's not able to develop an new Pieces (red squares) to good squares ...

So, despite all of Black's Pawn moves, he has now managed to catch up in the Tally of Developed Pieces, which now stands at two units each (it could also be argued that the Tally is even greater, for Black, as his two Rooks and Queen are already in good positions, supporting the Pawns in front of them, so have technically been developed, without even moving!)

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 11.e4 f6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 11.e4 f6
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 11.e4 f6
On first glance, Black's f-Pawn move didn't seem like much, but check out the effect it's had on Black's dark-Bishop. Wow ...

Black's f6-Pawn completes a strong Advanced Chain, which collectively takes away five squares (c3, e3, f4, g5 & h5), from White's dark-Bishop, which has become a very Bad Bishop (the only safe square to develop to is d2; it's either that or stay on c1.)

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 12.Nh2 g5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 12.Nh2 g5
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 12.Nh2 g5
Black's g5-Pawn reinforces support for the h4-Pawn, most likely to be ready to replace it, should White try and trade his way out of his Cramped Position, such as by 13.g2-g3; 14.g3xh4 g5xh4.

The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, After 13.Bd2 a4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Black's Moves, after 13.Bd2 a4
The Strategy of Restraint
Black's Moves, After 13.Bd2 a4
Black's a-Pawn now restricts White's a-Pawn, in exactly the same way that Black's h-Pawn restricts White's h-Pawn.

We've now reached H&M-S's featured position (No. 136), and can look at the result of Black's Greater Space ...


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The Result of Black's Strategy of Restraint...

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Result 1, after 13...a4
Black's Strategy of Restraint
(RESULT #1), After 13...a4
RESULT #1: Black's Pawns & Pieces restrict White's Piece Development ...

I've highlighted all the squares in White's own territory that White cannot develop his Pieces to, because of the positions taken up by Black's Pawns and Pieces, which confine ALL of White's Pieces to the first two Ranks.
Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 136 - The Strategy of Restraint, Result 2, after 13...a4
Black's Strategy of Restraint
(RESULT #2), After 13...a4
RESULT #2: Black's Pawns trap White's Pawns in their territory, restricting development ...

Five of White's eight Pawns are stuck (red squares), immobile against the rival Black Pawns, on their respective files.

Of the three White Pawns that haven't moved, all have clear squares ahead of them. But, they too are effectively trapped in their own territory ...

Both results -- imposed in part by Black's deployment, as well as by the immobile situation of White's Pawns -- mean White's game is hopeless.

White cannot move his developed Pieces to good squares, nor can he develop new Pieces to good squares, as they're trapped on the back rank, by a combination of White's immobile Pawns and the Pieces already developed.

Sure, White can bust out of his Cramped Position, but the cost in material, as well as weakening his position (creating further weaknesses for Black to exploit), mean White will be fighting the remainder of the game, with a severe handicap.


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PGN

[Event "DSB-04.Kongress"]
[Site "Hamburg"]
[Date "1885.07.13"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "5"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Jean Taubenhaus"]
[Black "Siegbert Tarrasch"]
[ECO "A13"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "106"]

1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 d5 3.e3 c5 4.Nf3 d4 5.Ne2 Nc6 6.Ng3 h5 7.a3 h4 8.Ne2 e5 9.d3 a5 10.h3 Bd7 11.e4 f6 12.Nh2 g5 13.Bd2 a4 {PCC p.194 No.136} 14.Nc1 Bd6 15.Be2 Nce7 16.Bh5+ Kf8 17.Bg4 Ng6 18.Qf3 Kg7 19.g3 Rb8 20.Bxd7 Qxd7 21.Qg4 Qe7 22.gxh4 Rxh4 23.Qg2 Kf7 24.Ne2 Qd7 25.Nf3 Rh6 26.Ng3 N8e7 27.Rg1 Nf4 28.Bxf4 exf4 29.e5 fxg3 30.exd6 Qe6+ 31.Kd2 gxf2 32.Qxf2 Nf5 33.Rae1 Qe3+ 34.Qxe3 dxe3+ 35.Kc3 Rxh3 36.Ref1 Kg6 37.Rxg5+ fxg5 38.Ne5+ Kg7 39.Rxf5 Rf8 40.Rxg5+ Kf6 41.Nd7+ Kxg5 42.Nxf8 Rh8 43.Ne6+ Kg4 44.d7 Kf3 45.Ng5+ Kg2 46.Ne4 Rg8 47.Kc2 Kf1 48.Ng3+ Ke1 49.d4 cxd4 50.Nf5 Rd8 51.Nxd4 Rxd7 52.Nb5 e2 53.Nc3 Kf1 0-1

End.

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