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Superior Development
Exchanges (2 of 2)

Point Count Chess, NO. 132A to NO. 132B, p187
Nimzowitsch v. Capablanca, 1927

In this example, both sides lose Tempos when Exchanging Pieces -- the critical difference is the number of turns each side takes to make the trade; the more moves it takes, the more Tempos are wasted when the Piece is exchanged off the board.

This can lead to one falling behind in the Tally of Developed Pieces, which would give the opponent the Superior Development.

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the two positions featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.187, No. 132A, after 9...b6
  2. PCC, p.187, No. 132B, after 16...Rfd8
  3. PGN

Exchanges (2 of 2)
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.187, No. 132A, after 9...b6

After: 1.c4 Nf6 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 d5 4.e3 Be7 5.Nbd2 O-O 6.Bd3 c5 7.dxc5 Na6 8.O-O Nxc5 9.Be2 b6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A - Page 187
After: 9...b6

The following is a move-by-move account, showing how Exchanges affect the Tally of Developed Pieces, and as a result, the battle for Superior Development ...

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 1.c4 Nf6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 1.c4 Nf6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 1.c4 Nf6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
No Pieces Developed
0
BLACK
1...Nf6
1

Black immediately develops a Piece, adding one unit to the Tally, and taking an early lead over White, who chose to develop a Pawn.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 2.Nf3 e6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 2.Nf3 e6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 2.Nf3 e6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3
1
BLACK
1...Nf6
1

White draws level in the Tally, developing a Piece, while Black just moved a Pawn.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 3.d4 d5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 3.d4 d5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 3.d4 d5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3
1
BLACK
1...Nf6
1

Both sides develop Pawns, which doesn't affect the Tally.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 4.e3 Be7

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 4.e3 Be7
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 4.e3 Be7
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3
1
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7
2

Black moves his back into the lead, developing a Piece, in response to White, who moved another Pawn.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 5.Nbd2 O-O

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 5.Nbd2 O-O
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 5.Nbd2 O-O
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2
2
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O
3

Both sides make new developing moves -- White's Queen Knight is developed (5.Nbd2); while H&M-S consider the act of Castling to add to one's Tally, so Black adds one Tempo, to maintain his overall lead in development (of Pieces).

Note: Although the Rook is involved in Castling, I've only highlighted the King, as it's easier to count the developing moves, in the diagram. In any case, even though two Pieces are moved, Castling only counts as one Tempo.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 6.Bd3 c5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 6.Bd3 c5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 6.Bd3 c5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3
3
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O
3

White pulls level in the Tally, as he develops a Pieces (6.Bf1-d3), whereas Black just moved a Pawn.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 7.dxc5 Na6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 7.dxc5 Na6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 7.dxc5 Na6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3
3
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6
4

White's d-Pawn captures Black's c-Pawn, which doesn't affect the Tally. However, Black developing his Queen Knight, does affect the Tally, sending him back into the overall lead in the development of Pieces.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 8.O-O Nxc5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 8.O-O Nxc5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 8.O-O Nxc5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O
4
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5
4

White Castles, which adds to his Tally. But, Black moves his Queen Knight for a second time, which loses the Tempo gained from its first move (7...Nc8-a6). This allows White to pull level, in the Tally.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 9.Be2 b6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 9.Be2 b6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 9.Be2 b6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2
4
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5
4

Now it's White who has just lost a Tempo (6.Bf1-d3), by moving his light-Bishop, for a second time, rather than developing a new Piece.

The Tally remains equal, as Black only moves a Pawn.

The example continues below image No. 132B, where both sides lose Tempos, for Exchanging Pieces ...


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Position #2, My Analysis
PCC, p.187, No. 132B, after 16...Rfd8

After: 10.cxd5 Nxd5 11.Nb3 Bb7 12.Nxc5 Bxc5 13.Qa4 Qf6 14.Ba6 Bxa6 15.Qxa6 Nb4 16.Qe2 Rfd8

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132B - Page 187
After: 16...Rfd8

Exchanges (affects Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 10.cxd5 Nxd5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 1.x
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 10.cxd5 Nxd5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2
4
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5
4

No change in the Tally, for either side, but for different reasons -- White develops a Pawn, not a Piece; Black moves his King Knight, which had already been developed, so loses the Tempo it had originally gained (1...Ng8-f6).

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 11.Nb3 Bb7

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 11.Nb3 Bb7
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 11.Nb3 Bb7
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2; 11.Nb3
4
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5;
11...Bb7
5

White loses the Tempo his Queen Knight originally gained (5.Nb1-d2), as he moves it again.

This enables Black to retake the lead in development, by developing his light-Bishop (11...Bc8-b7).

Exchanges (affects Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 12.Nxc5 Bxc5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 12.Nxc5 Bxc5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 12.Nxc5 Bxc5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2; 11.Nb3;
12.Nxc5
3
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5;
11...Bb7; 12...Bxc5
4

The first Exchange of Pieces ...

Note how both sides took two moves to exchange Pieces on c5. So, those moves -- or, Tempos -- are effectively wiped from the Tally.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 13.Qa4 Qf6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 13.Qa4 Qf6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 13.Qa4 Qf6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2; 11.Nb3;
12.Nxc5; 13.Qa4
4
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5;
11...Bb7; 12...Bxc5;
13...Qf6
5

Both sides develop their Queens, adding one Tempo each to their respective Tallies.

Black still leads the development race, by one Tempo.

Exchanges (affects Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 14.Ba6 Bxa6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 14.Ba6 Bxa6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 14.Ba6 Bxa6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2; 11.Nb3;
12.Nxc5; 13.Qa4;
14.Ba6
3
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5;
11...Bb7; 12...Bxc5;
13...Qf6; 14...Bxa6
5

The second Exchange of Pieces takes place over two moves ...

We'll look at the outcome, and how both sides have been affected, after the next move (following the capture of Black's light-Bishop, below).

Exchanges (affects Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 15.Qxa6 Nb4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 15.Qxa6 Nb4
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 15.Qxa6 Nb4
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2; 11.Nb3;
12.Nxc5; 13.Qa4;
14.Ba6; 15.Qxa6
3
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5;
11...Bb7; 12...Bxc5;
13...Qf6; 14...Bxa6;
15...Nb4
4

We can see that all previous Tempos have effectively been wiped from the Tally. But, it's White who comes out worse, having taken three turns to make the exchange (6.Bf1-d3, 9.Bd3-e2 & 14.Be2-a6), versus Black, who only took two turns to exchange on a6 (11...Bc8-b7 & 14...Bb7xa6).

Both sides then move Pieces that had already been developed once before -- White's Queen moves again, to complete the exchange on a6; Black's King Knight comes across to attack White's Queen, which has consequences for White's development Tally, on his next move ...

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 16.Qe2 Rfd8

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 132A to 132B - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 16.Qe2 Rfd8
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 16.Qe2 Rfd8
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
2.Nf3; 5.Nbd2;
6.Bd3; 8.O-O;
9.Be2; 11.Nb3;
12.Nxc5; 13.Qa4;
14.Ba6; 15.Qxa6;
16.Qe2
3
BLACK
1...Nf6; 4...Be7;
5...O-O; 7...Na6;
8...Nxc5; 10...Nxd5;
11...Bb7; 12...Bxc5;
13...Qf6; 14...Bxa6;
15...Nb4; 16...Rfd8
5

White is forced to move his Queen to safety, but that loses another Tempo. To compound things even more, Black develops his King Rook, to a strong position, not only taking a two Tempo lead in development, but ending up with the advantage of Controlling a Useful Open File (d-file), with his Rook.


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PGN

[Event "New York"]
[Site "New York"]
[Date "1927"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "2"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Aron Nimzowitsch"]
[Black "Jose Raul Capablanca"]
[ECO "E10"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "82"]

1. c4 Nf6 2. Nf3 e6 3. d4 d5 4. e3 Be7 5. Nbd2 O-O 6. Bd3 c5 7. dxc5 Na6 8. O-O Nxc5 9. Be2 b6 {PCC p.187 No. 132A} 10. cxd5 Nxd5 11. Nb3 Bb7 12. Nxc5 Bxc5 13. Qa4 Qf6 14. Ba6 Bxa6 15. Qxa6 Nb4 16. Qe2 Rfd8 {PCC p.187 No. 132B}17. a3 Nd3 18. Ne1 Nxe1 19. Rxe1 Rac8 20. Rb1 Qe5 21. g3 Qd5 22. b4 Bf8 23. Bb2 Qa2 24. Ra1 Qb3 25. Bd4 Rc2 26. Qa6 e5 27. Bxe5 Rdd2 28. Qb7 Rxf2 29. g4 Qe6 30. Bg3 Rxh2 31. Qf3 Rhg2+ 32. Qxg2 Rxg2+ 33. Kxg2 Qxg4 34. Rad1 h5 35. Rd4 Qg5 36. Kh2 a5 37. Re2 axb4 38. axb4 Be7 39. Re4 Bf6 40. Rf2 Qd5 41. Re8+ Kh7 0-1

End.

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