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Superior Development
Exchanges (1 of 2)

Point Count Chess, NO. 131, p186
Tartakower v. Capablanca, 1924

Any Tempos that are gained, from developing a Piece, are wiped off the Tally of Developed Pieces, if that Piece is involved in an Exchange.

H&M-S go on to say that: "If one piece has moved more often than the other, its disappearance represents a loss of one or more tempos."

At first, it may seem like the outcome is a fair and even exchange of Pieces. But, the difference occurs if one Piece takes more turns in order to carry out the trade -- those extra turns impact on the Tally of Developed Pieces, which could result in their army ended up "behind" in the race to develop their Pieces, ready for the Middlegame battle, and the opposing side would claim an advantage for Superior Development.

Read on, to see how Exchanges affect the Tally of Developed Pieces ...

Beneath the ChessFlash viewer, you'll find my analysis of the position featured in Point Count Chess:
  1. PCC, p.186, No. 131, after 8...dxc4
  2. PGN

Exchanges (1 of 2)
My Analysis

Position #1, My Analysis
PCC, p.186, No. 131, after 8...dxc4

After: 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Be2 d5 4.exd5 Nf6 5.c4 c6 6.d4 Bb4+ 7. Kf1 cxd5 8.Bxf4 dxc4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Page 186
After: 8...dxc4

So, in this example, we'll see how Exchanges affect the Tally of Developed Pieces, and as a result, the battle for Superior Development ...

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 1.e4 e5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 1.e4 e5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 1.e4 e5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
No Pieces Developed
0
BLACK
No Pieces Developed
0

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 2.f4 exf4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 2.f4 exf4
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 2.f4 exf4
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
No Pieces Developed
0
BLACK
No Pieces Developed
0

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 3.Be2 d5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 3.Be2 d5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 3.Be2 d5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2
1
BLACK
No Pieces Developed
0

White is first to develop a Piece (3.Bf1-e2); Black chooses to develop another Pawn (3...d7-d5).

White is ahead in development (of Pieces) by one Tempo.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 4.exd4 Nf6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 4.exd4 Nf6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 4.exd4 Nf6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2
1
BLACK
4...Nf6
1

White's move of a Pawn, with Black developing a Piece, enables Black to even things up, on the tally.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 5.c4 c6

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 5.c4 c6
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 5.c4 c6
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2
1
BLACK
4...Nf6
1

Both sides develop Pawns, which doesn't affect the Tally.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 6.d4 Bb4+

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 6.d4 Bb4+
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 6.d4 Bb4+
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2
1
BLACK
4...Nf6; 6...Bb4+
2

Black now takes a one-Tempo lead, having developed a Piece (6...Bf8-b4+), as White developed a Pawn.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 7.Kf1 cxd5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 7.Kf1 cxd5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 7.Kf1 cxd5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2
1
BLACK
4...Nf6; 6...Bb4+
2

I've not added to White's tally, for the move of his King -- my reason: it's not a "developing" move; White hasn't moved the King to develop it to a good square, but to flee from the attack by Black's Bb4. White has now voided his option to Castle. (I think that's how it works; it's probably what H&M-S did, here.)

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 8.Bxf4 dxc4

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 8.Bxf4 dxc4
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 8.Bxf4 dxc4
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2; 8.Bxf4
2
BLACK
4...Nf6; 6...Bb4+
2

White pulls level in the Tally, as he develops a Piece (8.Bc1xf4), while Black's just moves a Pawn.

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 9.Bxb8 Nd5

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 9.Bxb8 Nd5
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 9.Bxb8 Nd5
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2; 8.Bxf4;
9.Bxb8
2
BLACK
4...Nf6; 6...Bb4+;
9...Nd5
2

Both sides lose a Tempo, moving a Piece that's already developed. So the Tally stays at two Tempos each.

Now we reach the critical point in this example -- White moves his dark-Bishop for a second time, and is about to lose it to Black's Rook ...

Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces), After: 10.Kf2 Rxb8

Point Count Chess - IE - Diagram 131 - Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces) - After 10.Kf2 Rxb8
Exchanges (affect the Tally of Developed Pieces)
After: 10.Kf2 Rxb8
PIECE MOVES TEMPO
WHITE
3.Be2; 8.Bxf4;
9.Bxb8
1
BLACK
4...Nf6; 6...Bb4+;
9...Nd5; 10...Rxb8
3

Black develops his Queen Rook, at the same time as capturing White's Bishop, to complete the Exchange.

Note how White has effectively lost two Tempos, to reach this position -- that's the advantage Black now has (two Tempos), after developing his Rook, to take a 3:1 lead in the tally.

White's misjudgment stems from his belief that he's just swapped one Minor Piece for one of his own (Bishop for Knight). But, what he's actually done is spent two Tempos to Exchange a Piece (Black's Knight), which hadn't moved -- Black didn't spend any Tempos to exchange his Knight for White's Bishop ...

Added to that, Black completes the Exchange by developing a Piece * (his Queen Rook), which helps him jump into a two-Tempo lead, in the Tally of Developed Pieces.

* In this example, (above), the reason Black's Queen Rook is considered to have "actually been developed", is because it has been moved to a position that supports the advance of Black's b-Pawn, to b5, where it takes up a key position, supporting Black's Advanced c4-Pawn (which happens, after 13...b7-b5).

That the move of Black's Queen Rook also happens to complete the exchange, is a bonus, as it's done in the very act of being developed, so it doesn't lose, or waste, any Tempos.

Now, compare this with the example of a Rook that's been moved, but not considered to have been "developed"

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PGN

[Event "New York"]
[Site "New York"]
[Date "1924"]
[Round "?"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Savielly Tartakower"]
[Black "Jose Raul Capablanca"]
[ECO "C33"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "60"]

1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Be2 d5 4. exd5 Nf6 5. c4 c6 6. d4 Bb4+ 7. Kf1 cxd5 8. Bxf4 dxc4 {PCC p.186 No. 131} 9. Bxb8 Nd5 10. Kf2 Rxb8 11. Bxc4 O-O 12. Nf3 Nf6 13. Nc3 b5 14. Bd3 Ng4+ 15. Kg1 Bb7 16. Bf5 Bxf3 17. gxf3 Ne3 18. Bxh7+ Kh8 19. Qd3 Bxc3 20. bxc3 Nd5 21. Be4 Nf4 22. Qd2 Qh4 23. Kf1 f5 24. Bc6 Rf6 25. d5 Rd8 26. Rd1 Rxc6 27. dxc6 Rxd2 28. Rxd2 Ne6 29. Rd6 Qc4+ 30. Kg2 Qe2+ 0-1

End.

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